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Sentence to think about :  In the busy world of show business, it is not necessary to be a good musician to be familiar with the music.  Pierre Dac
Sentence to think about :  I am not a musician, but I love music passionately, and if air touches me, it amuses me, I listen with delight, I will not consider whether the music is French or Italian, I think Just as there is only one.  Carlo Goldoni
Sentence to think about :  That you become a teacher, scholar, or musician, have respect for the "sense", but do not imagine it is taught.  Hermann Hesse
Sentence to think about :  To make a bad musician, it takes at least five years of study. As for making a bad actor, it only takes ten minutes.  Coluche
Sentence to think about :  The musician is someone who can be relied on to provide reassurance to the neighbor, but it is also a reminder of what human excellence.  Yehudi Menuhin
Sentence to think about :  In the artistic hierarchy, the birds are the greatest musicians that exist on our planet.  Olivier Messiaen
Sentence to think about :  The music is the soul in harmony with all that exists.  Oscar Wilde
Sentence to think about :  The vase gives form to the emptiness, and music to silence.  Georges Braque
Sentence to think about :  What good attendance Plato, when a saxophone can also do us a glimpse of another world ?  Emil Michel Cioran
Sentence to think about :  Without music, life would be a mistake.  Friedrich Nietzsche
Sentence to think about :  We do not sell music. We share it.  Leonard Bernstein
Sentence to think about :  The more one knows about music, the less one is able to say something worthwhile.  Patrick Süskind
Sentence to think about :  The opera is opera, the symphony is the symphony, and I do not think it is nice to dance with the orchestra.  Giuseppe Verdi
Sentence to think about :  Mass of love - it seems that music is that for women.  Edmond et Jules de Goncourt
Sentence to think about :  There is no music more enjoyable than the variations of tunes.  Joseph Joubert
Sentence to think about :  Music is a higher revelation than all wisdom and philosophy.  Ludwig van Beethoven
Sentence to think about :  The real music is silence, and all notes are framed by silence.  Miles Davis
Sentence to think about :  The music, the most beautiful religion in the world where we are not threatened or promised.  Minou Drouet
Sentence to think about :  Jazz is what allows us to escape from everyday life.  Stéphane Grappelli
Sentence to think about :  The music deserves a second language compulsory in all schools in the world.  Paul Carvel
Sentence to think about :  Music gives a soul to our hearts and wings to thought.  Platon
Sentence to think about :  The beauty of music - like light - is that of speed, mobility, elusive.  Jean-Michel Jarre
Sentence to think about :  You do not need a brain to listen to music.  Luciano Pavarotti
Sentence to think about :  Music should humbly seek to please, the extreme complication is contrary to art.  Claude Debussy
Sentence to think about :  People who do not stand a chance to change the music world are those who do not like music.  Ben Harper
Sentence to think about :  The music drives the hatred in those who are without love. It gives peace to those who are restless, she comforts those who mourn.  Pablo Casals
Sentence to think about :  Our era is no longer music. She hides in the noise of men in their solitude suggesting what she thinks is music.  Jacques Attali
Sentence to think about :  It's not quite true that music soothes the soul. I even believe that harmony, a little in excess, leads the better man made ​​to a state of stupor and senility quite frisky.  Alphonse Allais
 
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Musique en Harmonie


Musique en Harmonie,le site d'un passionné ... pour des passionnés. Vous y trouverez tout ce qui concerne la pratique instrumentale au sein d'un ensemble regroupant les instruments de la famille des bois, des cuivres et des percussions, ainsi que la pratique du chant dans une chorale.


Legal mentions - by saxbar 04/07/2018 07:47 

Legal notice and privacy policy of Music in Harmony

In accordance with the provisions of Articles 6-III and 19 of Act No. 2004-575 of 21 June 2004 on confidence in the digital economy (LCEN), these legal notices are brought to the attention of users and visitors to the site: Music in Harmony.

The site Music in Harmony is accessible at the following address: https://musique-harmonie.fr/

Access to and use of Music in Harmony is subject to the following legal notices and applicable laws and/or regulations.

The connection, access and use of this site imply full and unreserved acceptance of all the provisions of this legal notice.

This site is displayed with GuppY 5, a free CMS respecting good practices, security, privacy and protection of users' personal data.

LEGAL INFORMATION

In accordance with article 6 of the law n°2004-575 of June 21, 2004 (LCEN), the identity of the participants within the framework of the realization of the site and its follow-up is brought to the attention of visitors :

The site Music in Harmony is edited by Lud Bienaimé domiciled at Bonneville 80, Website Contact as site administrator and publication director.

The site is hosted by o2switch whose head office is at 222-224, Boulevard Gustave Flaubert - 63000 Clermont - Ferrand , +33 (0)4 44 44 60 40 , https://www.o2switch.fr/

All Internet users who browse, read, view and use the site Music in Harmony are considered users.

By using the site, you acknowledge that you have read and accepted these conditions, they may be modified at any time and without notice. I cannot be held responsible in any way for any misuse of the service.


INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

All content on this site, including, but not limited to, graphics, images, text, videos, animations, sounds, logos, gifs and icons as well as their layout are under CeCILL license or under the original license for the scripts used.

Any reproduction of articles, news, posts, various documentation or posts on the Music in Harmony forum must include a citation of the source with a direct link to the original.

For any request for authorization or information, please contact me through the Contact page of the site. Specific conditions are foreseen for the press.


PRIVACY POLICY

In accordance with the provisions of Article 5 of European Regulation 2016/679, the collection and processing of user data shall respect the following principles :

  • Data may only be collected and processed with the consent of the user who owns the data.
     
  • The collection and processing of data is limited to the maximum for the display of the site, for comments, for messages on the forum, for processing members' preferences. Each member can modify, delete his preferences at any time.
     
  • The site editor undertakes to guarantee the integrity and confidentiality of the data collected.

In accordance with the requirements of Article 6 of European Regulation 2016/679, the collection and processing of personal data only takes place if the user has expressly consented to the processing.
 

The personal data collected on the site are:

  •  for visitors: nickname, IP address, email address after formal acceptance in a contact form, comments, forum,
     
  •  for members: username, IP address, email address after formal acceptance in the registration form with their treatment for saving preferences.

The hosting of the site data Music in Harmony is provided by o2switch whose head office is at 222-224, Boulevard Gustave Flaubert - 63000 Clermont - Ferrand , +33 (0)4 44 44 60 40 , https://www.o2switch.fr/.

The data collected and processed by the site are exclusively hosted and processed in France.

The editor of Music in Harmony ensures the processing and protection of data, he can be contacted through the Contact page of this site.

User rights and procedures for enforcing user rights

In accordance with the regulations, the user has the rights listed below, to grant his request, he is required to provide his full name and email address.

The publisher of the site is required to respond to the user within thirty days maximum.

  • Right of access, rectification and right to forget
    The user can read, update, modify or request the deletion of data concerning him by the Contact page of the site. If he has one, the user can delete his account by clicking on "My account" in the Preferences box, then by deleting his preferences.
     
  • Right to data portability
    The user can request the portability of personal data held by the site by making a request through the contact page of the site.
     
  • Right to limit and object to data processing
    The user has the right to oppose the processing of data by the site without the site can refuse.
     
  • Right to determine the fate of data after death
    Users are reminded that they can organise the fate of their data collected and processed if they die, in accordance with law n°2016-1321 of 7 October 2016.
     
  • Right to appeal to the competent supervisory authority
    If the site editor decides not to respond to the user's request, and if the user wishes to contest this decision, he has the right to refer the matter to the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés (CNIL) - https://www.cnil.fr - or any competent judge.
     

Obligations of the data controller

The publisher of the site undertakes to protect the personal data collected, not to transmit them to third parties except in a judicial framework, to notify the user in the event of rectification or deletion of data.

On the site Music in Harmony, the https protocol is used, an admin protection is set up, the update is applied to each release of a new version of GuppY for a better protection of personal data.

In the event that the integrity, confidentiality or security of the user's personal data is compromised, the controller undertakes to inform the user by any means.
 

Cookies

The site uses "cookie" techniques to process statistics and traffic information, facilitate navigation and improve service for user convenience.

For the use of "cookie" files involving the saving and analysis of personal data, the consent of the user is necessarily required.

This user consent is considered valid for 365 days. At the end of this period, the site will again request the user's authorization to save "cookies" files on his hard disk.
 

1. Opposition of the user to the use of "cookies" files by the site

The user is informed that he can oppose the recording of these "cookies" by configuring his browser software.

In the event that the user decides to deactivate the "cookies" files, he/she may continue browsing the site. However, any dysfunction of the site caused by this manipulation could not be considered as being because of the editor of the site.

2. Description of "cookie" files used by the site

The site editor draws the user's attention to the fact that the following cookies are used when browsing:

  • for visitors: GuppYConnect5, GuppYCookie5, GuppYCrypt, GuppYScreen, their lifetime is the duration of the connection,
     
  • for connected members: GuppYConnect5, GuppYCookie5, GuppYCrypt, GuppYScreen, GuppYUser5, their lifespan is 365 days, unless you log out, in which case they will be deleted, upon reconnection they will be recreated.
     
  • for service users: GuppYPost5 (blog, forum, guestbook, news, recommendations, reactions to articles), GuppYPref5 (registration, connection, administration), GuppYContact5 (advanced contact), GuppYAdmPref5 (administration), GuppYConnect5 (connection, administration)
     

Since version 5.02.06 of GuppY, GuppYPref5, GuppYConnect5, GuppYCrypt, GuppYUser5 cookies are encrypted for content security, with the possibility of changing the encryption key for the site editor.

When browsing the site, the user is made aware that cookies files of third parties may be stored.

In addition, the site includes social networking buttons, allowing users to share their activity on the site. Cookies" files from these social networks may therefore be stored on the user's computer when using these features.

The user's attention is drawn to the fact that these sites have their own privacy policies, possibly different from those presented here.

The site editor invites users to consult the privacy and personal data management policies of these sites.


APPLICABLE LAW AND JURISDICTION

These Legal Notices are governed by French law. In the event of a dispute and failing an amicable agreement, the dispute will be brought before the French courts in accordance with the rules of jurisdiction in force.
 

CONTACT

For any report of illegal content or activities, the user may contact the publisher via the Contact page of this site or by registered mail with acknowledgement of receipt sent to the publisher at the address specified in these legal notices.
 

Legal mentions - by saxbar 04/07/2018 07:47 

Legal notice and privacy policy of Music in Harmony

In accordance with the provisions of Articles 6-III and 19 of Act No. 2004-575 of 21 June 2004 on confidence in the digital economy (LCEN), these legal notices are brought to the attention of users and visitors to the site: Music in Harmony.

The site Music in Harmony is accessible at the following address: https://musique-harmonie.fr/

Access to and use of Music in Harmony is subject to the following legal notices and applicable laws and/or regulations.

The connection, access and use of this site imply full and unreserved acceptance of all the provisions of this legal notice.

This site is displayed with GuppY 5, a free CMS respecting good practices, security, privacy and protection of users' personal data.

LEGAL INFORMATION

In accordance with article 6 of the law n°2004-575 of June 21, 2004 (LCEN), the identity of the participants within the framework of the realization of the site and its follow-up is brought to the attention of visitors :

The site Music in Harmony is edited by Lud Bienaimé domiciled at Bonneville 80, Website Contact as site administrator and publication director.

The site is hosted by o2switch whose head office is at 222-224, Boulevard Gustave Flaubert - 63000 Clermont - Ferrand , +33 (0)4 44 44 60 40 , https://www.o2switch.fr/

All Internet users who browse, read, view and use the site Music in Harmony are considered users.

By using the site, you acknowledge that you have read and accepted these conditions, they may be modified at any time and without notice. I cannot be held responsible in any way for any misuse of the service.


INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

All content on this site, including, but not limited to, graphics, images, text, videos, animations, sounds, logos, gifs and icons as well as their layout are under CeCILL license or under the original license for the scripts used.

Any reproduction of articles, news, posts, various documentation or posts on the Music in Harmony forum must include a citation of the source with a direct link to the original.

For any request for authorization or information, please contact me through the Contact page of the site. Specific conditions are foreseen for the press.


PRIVACY POLICY

In accordance with the provisions of Article 5 of European Regulation 2016/679, the collection and processing of user data shall respect the following principles :

  • Data may only be collected and processed with the consent of the user who owns the data.
     
  • The collection and processing of data is limited to the maximum for the display of the site, for comments, for messages on the forum, for processing members' preferences. Each member can modify, delete his preferences at any time.
     
  • The site editor undertakes to guarantee the integrity and confidentiality of the data collected.

In accordance with the requirements of Article 6 of European Regulation 2016/679, the collection and processing of personal data only takes place if the user has expressly consented to the processing.
 

The personal data collected on the site are:

  •  for visitors: nickname, IP address, email address after formal acceptance in a contact form, comments, forum,
     
  •  for members: username, IP address, email address after formal acceptance in the registration form with their treatment for saving preferences.

The hosting of the site data Music in Harmony is provided by o2switch whose head office is at 222-224, Boulevard Gustave Flaubert - 63000 Clermont - Ferrand , +33 (0)4 44 44 60 40 , https://www.o2switch.fr/.

The data collected and processed by the site are exclusively hosted and processed in France.

The editor of Music in Harmony ensures the processing and protection of data, he can be contacted through the Contact page of this site.

User rights and procedures for enforcing user rights

In accordance with the regulations, the user has the rights listed below, to grant his request, he is required to provide his full name and email address.

The publisher of the site is required to respond to the user within thirty days maximum.

  • Right of access, rectification and right to forget
    The user can read, update, modify or request the deletion of data concerning him by the Contact page of the site. If he has one, the user can delete his account by clicking on "My account" in the Preferences box, then by deleting his preferences.
     
  • Right to data portability
    The user can request the portability of personal data held by the site by making a request through the contact page of the site.
     
  • Right to limit and object to data processing
    The user has the right to oppose the processing of data by the site without the site can refuse.
     
  • Right to determine the fate of data after death
    Users are reminded that they can organise the fate of their data collected and processed if they die, in accordance with law n°2016-1321 of 7 October 2016.
     
  • Right to appeal to the competent supervisory authority
    If the site editor decides not to respond to the user's request, and if the user wishes to contest this decision, he has the right to refer the matter to the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés (CNIL) - https://www.cnil.fr - or any competent judge.
     

Obligations of the data controller

The publisher of the site undertakes to protect the personal data collected, not to transmit them to third parties except in a judicial framework, to notify the user in the event of rectification or deletion of data.

On the site Music in Harmony, the https protocol is used, an admin protection is set up, the update is applied to each release of a new version of GuppY for a better protection of personal data.

In the event that the integrity, confidentiality or security of the user's personal data is compromised, the controller undertakes to inform the user by any means.
 

Cookies

The site uses "cookie" techniques to process statistics and traffic information, facilitate navigation and improve service for user convenience.

For the use of "cookie" files involving the saving and analysis of personal data, the consent of the user is necessarily required.

This user consent is considered valid for 365 days. At the end of this period, the site will again request the user's authorization to save "cookies" files on his hard disk.
 

1. Opposition of the user to the use of "cookies" files by the site

The user is informed that he can oppose the recording of these "cookies" by configuring his browser software.

In the event that the user decides to deactivate the "cookies" files, he/she may continue browsing the site. However, any dysfunction of the site caused by this manipulation could not be considered as being because of the editor of the site.

2. Description of "cookie" files used by the site

The site editor draws the user's attention to the fact that the following cookies are used when browsing:

  • for visitors: GuppYConnect5, GuppYCookie5, GuppYCrypt, GuppYScreen, their lifetime is the duration of the connection,
     
  • for connected members: GuppYConnect5, GuppYCookie5, GuppYCrypt, GuppYScreen, GuppYUser5, their lifespan is 365 days, unless you log out, in which case they will be deleted, upon reconnection they will be recreated.
     
  • for service users: GuppYPost5 (blog, forum, guestbook, news, recommendations, reactions to articles), GuppYPref5 (registration, connection, administration), GuppYContact5 (advanced contact), GuppYAdmPref5 (administration), GuppYConnect5 (connection, administration)
     

Since version 5.02.06 of GuppY, GuppYPref5, GuppYConnect5, GuppYCrypt, GuppYUser5 cookies are encrypted for content security, with the possibility of changing the encryption key for the site editor.

When browsing the site, the user is made aware that cookies files of third parties may be stored.

In addition, the site includes social networking buttons, allowing users to share their activity on the site. Cookies" files from these social networks may therefore be stored on the user's computer when using these features.

The user's attention is drawn to the fact that these sites have their own privacy policies, possibly different from those presented here.

The site editor invites users to consult the privacy and personal data management policies of these sites.


APPLICABLE LAW AND JURISDICTION

These Legal Notices are governed by French law. In the event of a dispute and failing an amicable agreement, the dispute will be brought before the French courts in accordance with the rules of jurisdiction in force.
 

CONTACT

For any report of illegal content or activities, the user may contact the publisher via the Contact page of this site or by registered mail with acknowledgement of receipt sent to the publisher at the address specified in these legal notices.
 

(04/07/2018 07:47)

Law ful mentions - by saxbar 05/02/2012 11:36 

  • Disclaimer : The navigation on this site is subject to these terms of use.
    By accessing the information made available by Musique en Harmonie on its Web site, you acknowledge having read these terms of use and accept.
  • Governing Law : The content of this site is governed by French law.
  • Accommodation : nuxit.png
    The company "NUXIT" has a limited role in hosting the site. Neither any web host to use for its own account or to third parties personal data processed within the site, as stipulated in its Terms of Use.
  • Design & Construction : Lud Bienaimé. Using the CMS Guppy. The developers of the CMS Guppy have observed all the safety rules in force. They can not be held responsible for the misuse of the site by bad people.
  • Content : The site Musique en Harmonie is a personal site and not a commercial. The author receives no subsidy from any commercial sites that could be cited in different sections.
    Information in some articles may come from other sites with the consent of their authors, the source of this information is always cited.
    Musique en Harmonie can not guarantee the accuracy, precision, updating or completeness of information provided on this site.
    Consequently, the author of Musique en Harmonie accept responsibility for any inaccuracies, omissions or inaccuracies in the information available on this site.
  • Use of information : Musique en Harmonie can not be held responsible for the interpretation that you could use the information contained in the site.
    The personal information collected on this site and the photographs are intended to Musique en Harmonie. You have a right to access, modify, correct or delete such data pursuant to Articles 39 and 40 of Law No. 78-17 of 6 January 1978 (amended by Act No. 2004 - 801 of August 6, 2004), relating to Computers, Files and Liberties (CNIL
    To do so, send an email to the webmaster.
  • Copyright and Intellectual Property : Pursuant to Article L.335.2 code of intellectual property, reproduction or partial or total representation of the site or its contents is prohibited without permission from webmaster.
    It is forbidden to collect and use information available on the Site for commercial purposes.
  • Links : Musique en Harmonie can not be held responsible for the content of sites to which its own website refers.
    Musique en Harmonie accepts no responsibility for the links created by other sites to its site. The existence of such links can not allow to infer that Musique en Harmonie endorse the sites it approves the content.
  • Forums for discussion and classifieds Deposit : The user is not allowed to use the website to transmit, distribute or publish in any way defamatory, obscene, pornographic, abusive or violating any existing law.
    The Forums shall be used as a non-commercial. The user is not permitted without the express agreement of Musique en Harmonie, to broadcast or publish in any manner whatsoever any document or advertisement to raise funds.
    Musique en Harmonie reserves the right to delete, move or edit in its sole discretion, messages that are defamatory, libelous or obscene, or contravene the laws on copyright or trademarks, or unacceptable for any reason whatsoever. The user is solely responsible for the content of their messages.
    The user acknowledges that any document sent to the site (letter to the editor or article, for example) may be modified, removed, published, transmitted and distributed by Musique en Harmonie. The user also ensures that any documents submitted will not be subject to copyright.

Law ful mentions - by saxbar 05/02/2012 11:36 

  • Disclaimer : The navigation on this site is subject to these terms of use.
    By accessing the information made available by Musique en Harmonie on its Web site, you acknowledge having read these terms of use and accept.
  • Governing Law : The content of this site is governed by French law.
  • Accommodation : nuxit.png
    The company "NUXIT" has a limited role in hosting the site. Neither any web host to use for its own account or to third parties personal data processed within the site, as stipulated in its Terms of Use.
  • Design & Construction : Lud Bienaimé. Using the CMS Guppy. The developers of the CMS Guppy have observed all the safety rules in force. They can not be held responsible for the misuse of the site by bad people.
  • Content : The site Musique en Harmonie is a personal site and not a commercial. The author receives no subsidy from any commercial sites that could be cited in different sections.
    Information in some articles may come from other sites with the consent of their authors, the source of this information is always cited.
    Musique en Harmonie can not guarantee the accuracy, precision, updating or completeness of information provided on this site.
    Consequently, the author of Musique en Harmonie accept responsibility for any inaccuracies, omissions or inaccuracies in the information available on this site.
  • Use of information : Musique en Harmonie can not be held responsible for the interpretation that you could use the information contained in the site.
    The personal information collected on this site and the photographs are intended to Musique en Harmonie. You have a right to access, modify, correct or delete such data pursuant to Articles 39 and 40 of Law No. 78-17 of 6 January 1978 (amended by Act No. 2004 - 801 of August 6, 2004), relating to Computers, Files and Liberties (CNIL
    To do so, send an email to the webmaster.
  • Copyright and Intellectual Property : Pursuant to Article L.335.2 code of intellectual property, reproduction or partial or total representation of the site or its contents is prohibited without permission from webmaster.
    It is forbidden to collect and use information available on the Site for commercial purposes.
  • Links : Musique en Harmonie can not be held responsible for the content of sites to which its own website refers.
    Musique en Harmonie accepts no responsibility for the links created by other sites to its site. The existence of such links can not allow to infer that Musique en Harmonie endorse the sites it approves the content.
  • Forums for discussion and classifieds Deposit : The user is not allowed to use the website to transmit, distribute or publish in any way defamatory, obscene, pornographic, abusive or violating any existing law.
    The Forums shall be used as a non-commercial. The user is not permitted without the express agreement of Musique en Harmonie, to broadcast or publish in any manner whatsoever any document or advertisement to raise funds.
    Musique en Harmonie reserves the right to delete, move or edit in its sole discretion, messages that are defamatory, libelous or obscene, or contravene the laws on copyright or trademarks, or unacceptable for any reason whatsoever. The user is solely responsible for the content of their messages.
    The user acknowledges that any document sent to the site (letter to the editor or article, for example) may be modified, removed, published, transmitted and distributed by Musique en Harmonie. The user also ensures that any documents submitted will not be subject to copyright.

(05/02/2012 11:36)

Instrumental and vocal technique - by saxbar 04/05/2011 11:26 

  • A l'origine du son, le souffle : le travail de la respiration pour la voix et pour l'instrument à vent
    (in french)
  • L'équilibre et le rayonnement de la voix
    (in french)
 

Instrumental and vocal technique - by saxbar 04/05/2011 11:26 

  • A l'origine du son, le souffle : le travail de la respiration pour la voix et pour l'instrument à vent
    (in french)
  • L'équilibre et le rayonnement de la voix
    (in french)
 

(04/05/2011 11:26)

Harmonies/Bands - by saxbar 15/11/2010 15:54 

  • Cahier de l’animation musicale.
    “Harmonies et fanfares.”  N°39 (Décembre 1985).
    (Marly-le-Roi : Institut National d’Éducation Populaire, 1985).
    (in french)
  • Bandas : harmonies, fanfares, musiques populaires
    Bernard Thore
    (Editions Sud Ouest, 2006)
    (in french)
  • 150 ans de musique à la Garde républicaine : Mémoires d'un Orchestre
    (in french)
  • Harmonies et Fanfares en Indre-et-Loire du XIXe siècle à nos jours
    (in french)
 

Harmonies/Bands - by saxbar 15/11/2010 15:54 

  • Cahier de l’animation musicale.
    “Harmonies et fanfares.”  N°39 (Décembre 1985).
    (Marly-le-Roi : Institut National d’Éducation Populaire, 1985).
    (in french)
  • Bandas : harmonies, fanfares, musiques populaires
    Bernard Thore
    (Editions Sud Ouest, 2006)
    (in french)
  • 150 ans de musique à la Garde républicaine : Mémoires d'un Orchestre
    (in french)
  • Harmonies et Fanfares en Indre-et-Loire du XIXe siècle à nos jours
    (in french)
 

(15/11/2010 15:54)

Instruments - by saxbar 03/06/2010 10:22 

  • Les instruments à vent
    Presses Universitaires de France (PUF)
    3e éd. mise à jour (1 juillet 1985)
    (in french)
  • Les Bois et autres instruments à vent
    Gamma (1994)
    Collection : Clef de sol
    (in french)
  • The Cambridge Companion to the Saxophone
    (in english)
  • Les facteurs d'instruments de musique à Paris au XIXe siècle: Des artisans face à l'industrialisation
    (in french)
 

Instruments - by saxbar 03/06/2010 10:22 

  • Les instruments à vent
    Presses Universitaires de France (PUF)
    3e éd. mise à jour (1 juillet 1985)
    (in french)
  • Les Bois et autres instruments à vent
    Gamma (1994)
    Collection : Clef de sol
    (in french)
  • The Cambridge Companion to the Saxophone
    (in english)
  • Les facteurs d'instruments de musique à Paris au XIXe siècle: Des artisans face à l'industrialisation
    (in french)
 

(03/06/2010 10:22)

(01/04/2010 16:01)

Town bands - by saxbar 10/02/2010 15:24 

  • GUMPLOWICZ, Philippe, Les travaux d'Orphée.
    Deux siècles de pratique musicale amateur en France, 1820- 2000
    (Paris : Aubier, 2001).
    (in french)
 

Town bands - by saxbar 10/02/2010 15:24 

  • GUMPLOWICZ, Philippe, Les travaux d'Orphée.
    Deux siècles de pratique musicale amateur en France, 1820- 2000
    (Paris : Aubier, 2001).
    (in french)
 

(10/02/2010 15:24)

Choirs - by saxbar 26/01/2010 22:50 

Choir

Choir and Orchestra in historic layout
A children's choir in Berlin in 1932

In western music, a choir means a vocal ensemble, whose members, known singers, singing together the various musical parts for this type of formation under the direction of a conductor.

  • The word "choir" is generally synonymous with "chorus". The two words have different connotations, however.

    The word "chorus" usually refers to a unit composed of professional singers and paid, recruited by an institution or an official body - "the chorus of such theater," the chorus of this region, "the chorus of an opera" etc...

    The word "choir" in contrast, means more likely a group of amateurs, mostly volunteers, voluntarily united around a love of choral singing - "the choir college," the choir of a church ", "the village choir", etc...

    Intermediately, the term "ensemble" means a smaller group and / or with a greater musical requirement, even if it is amateur.
  • By age and sex of singers, we can distinguish :
the children's choir or children's chorus ;
the choir of men, or men's chorus, or male chorus ;
the choir of women, or women's chorus or female chorus ;
the mixed choir - men and women - or mixed chorus.
  • Members of a choir can be divided into several groups, called panels or voices. These groups are intended to interpret many different musical parts.
For example, a mixed choir consists mostly four desks, two desks women - soprano and alto - and two male desks - tenor and bass (SATB choir).
  • Choirs may also be distinguished by the choice of repertoire, with a wide variety of situations created by musical choices or more sociological in nature, and for example :
sacred music and/or secular music ;
military music, folk, revolutionary ;

Voice (instrument)

The voice is one of the musical instruments older.

The vocal sound production, or phonation, is obtained by sending air through both vocal cords vibrate, located in the larynx, followed by amplification and resonance thanks to the various organs resonators, as the pharynx, oral cavity or the nasal cavity.

The human voice is able of producing a wide variety of frequencies.

By changing the tension, especially the thickness of the vocal cords, which can change their vibrational frequency, which has the effect of varying the pitch of notes issued by voice. All these changes are the result of neuro-cerebral activities.

Description

There are different types of voices. They differentiate commonly voices of women and children and male voices, female voices and childish is more acute than the male voices (with some exceptions). In this classification, one can even say that there are deep voices and high voices of women and children, as there are deep voices and high voices of men. This leads to the conclusion that there are four types of voice, named as follows in musical terms :

  • The sopranos, or the shrill voices of women and children
  • The altos, and bass voices of women and children
  • The tenors, or the shrill voices of men
  • The basses, which as the name implies correspond to deep voices of men.

This classification is based on the tone, thickness, and the tessitura of the voice; term used to describe a musical sound level set, in which the voice can be heard as easily, maintaining a consistency of tone.

These records, also known range, are:

It should be noted that women tessituras below are only valid for lyric singers since the latter distorts (sing in head voice) over their entire range, while the variety of singers "poitrinent "  and then descend lower and rise less high, but whether they affect they rise as high as the voice type that corresponds to them in the following list.

  • Soprano : the soprano range covers the most common middle C to high-C (C3 - C5), the soprano types are classified as follows :
    • coloratura soprani or soprani acute :
      • Coloratura soprano light or light soprano : voice very agile, brilliant, shrill and high purity, but not very powerful, often with serious toneless, ranging from low D to high-G or high B flat (D3 - G/Bflat5). Note that the light coloratura soprano arias are very often accompanied by a flute, one imitating the other.
      • Lyric coloratura soprano : nimble voice as pure and bright as the light soprano, but warm and fuller and more homogeneous register, and extending from middle C to high-F (C3 - F5).
      • Dramatic coloratura soprano : nimble voice, warm and rich, easy as serious as the shrill, incessantly that can pass from one to another without any difficulty, with a power belongs to lirico-spinto or dramatic soprano, ranging from high-B to high-F (B2 - F5).
    • Lyric soprani :
    • It should be noted that the lyrical voice (whether of the sopranos or baritones) are very likely to legato.

      • Light lyric soprano : nimble voice (but not as much as coloratura soprano), very clear, bright and warm, with limited scope, is distinguished by a very pure vocal line, stretching from middle C to the high E flat (C3 -Eb5).
      • Lyric Soprano: it is by far the most common type female is a full voice, pure and warm, not shrill, nor dramatic, ranging from middle C to high-C (C3 - C5).
      • Great lyric soprano : voice possessing the characteristics of lyric soprano, but the patch is larger, allowing it to pass through orchestras large and whose range extends from middle C to high-C (C3 - C5).
      • Lirico-spinto soprano : warm voice, able of dramatic outbursts and strong colors, ranging from middle C to high-C (C3 - C5).
    • Soprani dramatiques:
      • Dramatic soprano or wagnerian : vocals passing easily through the more expanded bands, color and hot metal at a time, ranging from low-B to  high-C (B2 - C5).
      • Falcon soprano : voice with the same characteristics as the previous type, but with a serious and acute mezzo bit easier, it runs from low-G to top-B (G2 - B4).
  • Mezzo-soprano, (also called Mezzo) :
    • Coloratura mezzo-soprano : pure voice, warm, round, and very agile, with almost a sharp soprano, but could not stay there as long as the latter, the risk of getting hurt, its range extends from the low-A to top-B  (A2 - B4).
    • Light mezzo-soprano or Dugazon (from name's Misses Dugazon, famous interpreter of the late XVIIIth century) : pure voice, warm, round, and agile, ranging from the low-A to the top-A (A2 - A4) .
    • Lyric mezzo-soprano : voice powerful medium with warm colors in the low , often very extensive on one side to the other register. Lighter and agile than the dramatic, the lyric mezzo voice retains a texture rich, immersive and dark without cumbersome.
    • Dramatic mezzo-soprano or Galli-Marié (from name's another famous French singer of the late XIXth century, Celestine Galli-Marié) : voice, warm, enveloping, powerful, serious and dark in the midrange, bright in acute, it approach the dramatic contralto, besides this type has become very rare, it is often replaced by a mezzo-soprano dramatic. The range of dramatic mezzo-soprano runs from low-G to high-A (G2 -A4).
  • Contralto:
    • Coloratura contralto : voice very agile, large, dark tone, warm, round, bright and sharp, its range extends from low-F to high-G (F2 - G4). This type of voice is as rare as dramatic contralto, it is mostly replaced by a coloratura mezzo-soprano.
    • Dramatic contralto : full voice and dark, warm tone, round and naturally rich in natural deep and low tenor, without magnification artificial. Its range extends from low-C to high-G (C2 - G4). The term contralto voice applies to women but may designate, in music baroque, a male voice. It then specifies male alto.
  • Tenor:
    • High-cons : very agile voice, high purity, bright, easy to treble, but the limited size breasts in the low and midrange, treble in distorting and extending the low-C the high-F (C2 - F4).
    • Light Tenor : same features as the previous type, but not singing voice in falsetto, stretching from low-C to high-C (C2 - C4).
    • Light lyric tenor : the same characteristics as the previous type, except the power that is stronger, but more limited than that of the lyric tenor ranges from low-C to high-C (C2 - C4).
    • Lyric tenor : full voice, warm, pure, rich and full, extending from low-C to high-C (C2 - C4).
    • Lirico-spinto tenor : same features as the previous type, but stamp wider range extending from low-C to high-C (C2 - C4).
    • Dramatic tenor : same features as the previous type, but thick patch, which allows it to pass easily through orchestras very fleshed out.
    • Heldentenor, heroic tenor, or wagnerian tenor : warm voice, extremely meaty, and powerful (over 120 dB at 1 m), low to dark-medium and in the high baritone and brilliant, but not easy, its range extends low-G or low-A to top-A (G/A - A3).
  • Bass : E1 - D3 , baritones (Ab1 - F3) are the group most acute, the lower nobility have a voice very serious and extensive (C1 - E3).
The notes in the upper extreme (above C4 for men, and above C5 for women or children) are also called "cons-xxx ". Example: C-cons is the tenor of C4, the E-cons of the soprano to E5. This classification is quite strict but it is certain that these records can vary from one individual to another. Berlioz, in his orchestration of the Treaty, said that in practice there tessituras other voices, to intermediate bass and treble voices. For men, these voices are commonly known baritone voice. For women, it is the mezzo-sopranos.

We can therefore classify tessituras as follows :
  • Voices of women and children :
    Soprano
    Mezzo-soprano
    Alto
  • Men's voices :
    Ténor
    Baryton
    Basse

Some exceptions can add to these classifications, as the voices of high-cons, male voice unusually acute. Some women have very serious voice, called woman tenor. There are more in Eastern Europe and they are widely used in choral music of Bulgaria.

Finally, some virtuoso voice can reach extremely high notes like light soprani or coloratura soprani, those for whom writing was the air of the Queen of the Night in The Magic Flute of Mozart, or even very low notes - these voices are so called noble bass or deep bass and are found occasionally in the Russians. Some male voices are exceptionally low.

Technical

The technique of singing is very complex and requires much practice to be well controlled. Contrary to popular belief, when they sing, they are not only the vocal cords that are taking action, but really the whole body.
 
Indeed, the lungs are the essential part of the instrument. It is they who provide the air to bring the vocal cords vibrate. The diaphragm (the muscle of the lungs) controls inspiration. When in position, it stops its action. The expired air is then by the abdominal muscles, transverse and oblique relied on big-right themselves directly related to the viscera (liver, intestine, stomach ...).

It's the larynx that contains the vocal cords, which tighten or relax under the complex action of several muscles. To allow the singer to make sounds of different heights, the larynx tends more or less pronounced. When he ascends or descends into the trachea, it changes the dimension of the resonator and amends the patch, but not the pitch.

There are four ways to make vocal sounds, in relation to different modes of the larynx, known mechanisms (B. Roubeau) :
  • The mechanism 0 said Fry or strowbass
  • The mechanism 1 said chest voice, the larynx is fully lowered into the throat, the sounds are crazy. For example, the bass solo at the beginning of tuba mirum from Requiem by Mozart. 
  • The mechanism 2 said  head voice, the larynx is mounted in the groove, the sounds are thin and light. Example air of Arithmetic in The Child and the Spells of Ravel's "four and four eighteen, eleven and eleven twenty-five ....
  • The mechanism 3 said whistle voice.
  • The mixed voice is not a mode of mechanism of the larynx, but a way of adapting resonators.
To practice the singer practices what is known as the vocals, exercises varied depending on whether the singer wants to work on high or low register of her voice.
  • The voice is a guttural voice through the vocal cords while creating a hoarse voice and sometimes up to reproduce a voice almost animal. Normally, if this product is no vocal cord damage is possible because no problem of loss of voice.
Voice
Female voices
Modern classification Soprano · Mezzo-soprano · Contralto
Baroque classification Top · Above-lower
Male voices
Modern classification Tenor · Baritone · Bass
Baroque classification High-cons · Size · Low-Size
Tenor-cons classification Soprano · Alto
Unclassified Barrows


Choirmaster

In music, classical, a choirmaster or cantor is a musician responsible for preparing and coordinating the various desks singing a chorus or choir to perform a musical work. He may be assisted in its work by principal musicians.
  • When the work must be performed a cappella or accompanied by a small number of instruments together for the occasion, the musical director is normally provided by the choir.
  • When the work must be performed with an orchestra, the musical direction of the assembly thus formed is usually performed by the conductor.

Among the famous choir or holds or has held an important role in vocal music include Patrick Marie Aubert, Norbert Balatsch, Frieder Bernius, Bouture Didier Philippe Caillard, Stephane Caillat, Michel Corboz, Marcel Couraud, Marcus Creed, Laurence Equilbey, Eric Ericson, John Eliot Gardiner, Yvonne Ruled, Jacques Grimbert, Philippe Herreweghe, Geoffrey Jordan, Patrick Marco, Arthur Oldham, Michel Piquemal, François Polgar, Toni Ramon, Karl Richter, Denis Rouger, John Rutter, Gerhard Schmidt Gaden, Robert Shaw, Joel Suhubiette Michel Tranchant Sofi Jeannin. Many of them are also conductors, even if they have long specialized in music with choir.

Chorister

In western music, a chorister is a musician who, in a chorus or choir, performs together a musical part in a panel - unlike the solo singer, which, as its name suggests, carries only his part.

  • According to the panel to which it belongs, the choir will be associated with a job traditional voice: soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto, tenor, baritone or bass.
  • The musical knowledge base - mainly music theory and vocal technique - even if they are very popular in a choir, are not indispensable in the choral unprofessional. Thus, contrary to what happens in the field of instrumental music where technical knowledge is circumvented easily, anyone can easily fit just singing in a choir. Becoming a chorister is a way for fans without formal musical training, to participate in the execution of works, some of which may be large.
  • In popular music - jazz, rock, pop music - the term refers to a chorus singer who accompanies the lead singer, whether on an album or concert. The word chorus in this case must be interpreted as backup (or backing) vocalist.

Soprano

In western music, in the classic, the term soprano refers primarily to the panel whose ambitus is "above" (one of the altos, tenors and basses).

In the voice area, it means the voice of a woman or child, or keyboard solo. There are however also male sopranos: the castrati of baroque and classical periods or the boys before puberty. The men singing in falsetto or countertenors are usually called sopranos, when their range is getting closer (exceptional cases) that of the soprano. It means as well as any instrument, the soprano vocal range which is above all those of his family.
For example, the soprano saxophone is above the alto saxophone (most known).

The development in power and length of voice led to the study of voice, that voice is now called typology. It describes several types of sopranos, most powerful (dramatic soprano), the most acute (light soprano).

Tessituras

In one part of the choir, choir or vocal ensemble, its scope goes to B2 C5 (C-cons), which is two octaves. This voice is often responsible for singing the melody. If it is a soprano soloist, we then speak of her voice type (below).
In a polyphonic structure, if any particular vocal or instrumental source is mentioned, the soprano is simply the upper part, located above the alto. It is not attached to the tessitura of the voice but that of his family's perspective tessituras, there is no strict relationship between that of an instrument "soprano" and that of "soprano voice" for example, the beak-flute soprano,"sounds" an octave higher than the soprano voice.

Power

In classical music, the voice is worked to deliver a maximum power of at least 80 dB at one meter (which corresponds to a voice said to show, or concert).

In typolmogy voice, it uses the modern meanings: lyrical, lirico-spinto, dramatic, to describe the power of voice (gradually in order).

Be careful though, because if we talk of light soprano, it indicates both a low voice and a vocal range more acutely.

Placement of voice

Consistent with the classical beauty of the soprano voice has been built on an aesthetic homogeneity of the patch (no sensation of breaking from low to high), and developed his power of technology increasingly demanding (size of scenes). The specificity of the soprano is that it often works to his low tones not to use his chest voice, or as lightly as possible.

Alto (voice)

In classical music, an alto (plural : altos or alti) is a type of job in a chorus, whose ambitus matches almost exactly in the range of the contralto voice. However, all belonging to the choir viola section did not necessarily "true voice of contralto". These are often mezzo-soprano with easy low tones, whose color is lighter than a contralto.

If the altos are frequently female singers, one may be dealing with male altos in the following two assumptions :
  1. In a children's choir, the alto section is naturally composed of male voices with the most serious.
  2. In several vocal ensembles, including interpreting the repertoire of baroque music, the alto section meets very common for men using the technique of falsetto - also known as: countertenors. The presence of men among the altos and sometimes brings a powerful extra brightness to the entire panel, as the men sing in the treble of their range, while women use their range rather serious.

Tenor

In western music, the term tenor (from the latin tenere = to hold) means an instrument or ambitus between alto and bass. In vocal music (baroque excepted), it is the male voice the most acute.

Figuratively, and referring to tenor soloists in XIXth century, gained fame in the operatic field, the word "tenor" usually refers to a man known for his talent in that activity.
Examples: "tenor of the Bar" to describe a successful lawyer, a "tenor of politics" to describe a famous politician, and so on.

Vocal music

In the Middle Ages, the word tenor had several meanings. Early medieval polyphony are almost exclusively vocal. This origin explains that in a chorus, the word tenor refers primarily a desk, whose ambitus is between that of the altos and bass. By extension, the term includes the members of this panel, and this, whatever their true voice type.

When writing music becomes harmonic from the XIVth century, the term came to designate a male voice usually acute, responsible for the main melody - often punctuated by long values - as opposed to other voices, above and below - including figures rhythmic richer and more varied - whose function was to provide counterpoint to the tenor part. In conservatories and music schools, the duties ofharmony are still today prepared for a quartet consisting of soprano, alto, tenor and bass.

Vocal typology

Enrico Caruso, one of the greatest tenors
In classical music, the tenor is the type of male voice whose range is most acute.

It goes without saying that the voices of young boys, castrati and countertenors are sharper than the tenor voice, but these are classified separately because their vocal technique is totally different.

The term "tenor" is used at the end of the XVIIIth century, succeeding the designations of "size" and "high-cons".

There are several categories of tenors whose differ of the characters they portrayed, and the valor of voice and rich tone, being the constant range, which extends most of the C2 to B3.

If until the middle of the XIXth century, the highs were issued in the "falsetto" (falsetto in Italian) or "head voice" in the baroque style, the "chest voice" - stronger but less extensive - is gradually imposed from the 1840s under the leadership of French tenor Gilbert Duprez. This development explains, for example, in Italian opera, bel canto works (Bellini, Rossini) generally have high tessituras but instrumentation minor roles while verists (Puccini) are less acute but more with orchestrations provided.

Baritone (voice)

In western music, a baritone is a singer whose voice has an average range between the tenors and basses. The term - from Greek barytonos : whose voice has a low tone - is often used for solo voice, but can also be used for a voice in a desk.

Le baritone, voice of soloist

When the word baritone voice means a soloist, he means the type of male voice whose range is midway between those of the tenor and bass. The term is apparent that at the end of the XVIIIth century to describe a class voice. Previously, this type of voice was called concordant or low-size. There are several categories which differ by baritones of the characters they portrayed, and the valor of voice and rich tone, the remaining constant range, which extends most of the G1 to G3.

Bass (voice)

In western music, a bass is a singer with a deep voice, originally tasked with running the "low" of a polyphonic singing.

Panel member into a choir

In a chorus (or choir), the word bass means primarily a panel, whose ambitus is below that of the tenors. By extension, the term includes the members of this panel, and this, whatever their true typology voice.

Vocal typology

Regarding the soloists, a bass is the type of male voice whose range is the lower.

  • There are several categories which differ in the low nature of the characters they portrayed, and the valor of voice and rich tone, often remaining constant tessitura, which extends most of the E1 to E3.

(Source: wikipedia.org - copyright authors - article under GFDL)

Choirs - by saxbar 26/01/2010 22:50 

Choir

Choir and Orchestra in historic layout
A children's choir in Berlin in 1932

In western music, a choir means a vocal ensemble, whose members, known singers, singing together the various musical parts for this type of formation under the direction of a conductor.

  • The word "choir" is generally synonymous with "chorus". The two words have different connotations, however.

    The word "chorus" usually refers to a unit composed of professional singers and paid, recruited by an institution or an official body - "the chorus of such theater," the chorus of this region, "the chorus of an opera" etc...

    The word "choir" in contrast, means more likely a group of amateurs, mostly volunteers, voluntarily united around a love of choral singing - "the choir college," the choir of a church ", "the village choir", etc...

    Intermediately, the term "ensemble" means a smaller group and / or with a greater musical requirement, even if it is amateur.
  • By age and sex of singers, we can distinguish :
the children's choir or children's chorus ;
the choir of men, or men's chorus, or male chorus ;
the choir of women, or women's chorus or female chorus ;
the mixed choir - men and women - or mixed chorus.
  • Members of a choir can be divided into several groups, called panels or voices. These groups are intended to interpret many different musical parts.
For example, a mixed choir consists mostly four desks, two desks women - soprano and alto - and two male desks - tenor and bass (SATB choir).
  • Choirs may also be distinguished by the choice of repertoire, with a wide variety of situations created by musical choices or more sociological in nature, and for example :
sacred music and/or secular music ;
military music, folk, revolutionary ;

Voice (instrument)

The voice is one of the musical instruments older.

The vocal sound production, or phonation, is obtained by sending air through both vocal cords vibrate, located in the larynx, followed by amplification and resonance thanks to the various organs resonators, as the pharynx, oral cavity or the nasal cavity.

The human voice is able of producing a wide variety of frequencies.

By changing the tension, especially the thickness of the vocal cords, which can change their vibrational frequency, which has the effect of varying the pitch of notes issued by voice. All these changes are the result of neuro-cerebral activities.

Description

There are different types of voices. They differentiate commonly voices of women and children and male voices, female voices and childish is more acute than the male voices (with some exceptions). In this classification, one can even say that there are deep voices and high voices of women and children, as there are deep voices and high voices of men. This leads to the conclusion that there are four types of voice, named as follows in musical terms :

  • The sopranos, or the shrill voices of women and children
  • The altos, and bass voices of women and children
  • The tenors, or the shrill voices of men
  • The basses, which as the name implies correspond to deep voices of men.

This classification is based on the tone, thickness, and the tessitura of the voice; term used to describe a musical sound level set, in which the voice can be heard as easily, maintaining a consistency of tone.

These records, also known range, are:

It should be noted that women tessituras below are only valid for lyric singers since the latter distorts (sing in head voice) over their entire range, while the variety of singers "poitrinent "  and then descend lower and rise less high, but whether they affect they rise as high as the voice type that corresponds to them in the following list.

  • Soprano : the soprano range covers the most common middle C to high-C (C3 - C5), the soprano types are classified as follows :
    • coloratura soprani or soprani acute :
      • Coloratura soprano light or light soprano : voice very agile, brilliant, shrill and high purity, but not very powerful, often with serious toneless, ranging from low D to high-G or high B flat (D3 - G/Bflat5). Note that the light coloratura soprano arias are very often accompanied by a flute, one imitating the other.
      • Lyric coloratura soprano : nimble voice as pure and bright as the light soprano, but warm and fuller and more homogeneous register, and extending from middle C to high-F (C3 - F5).
      • Dramatic coloratura soprano : nimble voice, warm and rich, easy as serious as the shrill, incessantly that can pass from one to another without any difficulty, with a power belongs to lirico-spinto or dramatic soprano, ranging from high-B to high-F (B2 - F5).
    • Lyric soprani :
    • It should be noted that the lyrical voice (whether of the sopranos or baritones) are very likely to legato.

      • Light lyric soprano : nimble voice (but not as much as coloratura soprano), very clear, bright and warm, with limited scope, is distinguished by a very pure vocal line, stretching from middle C to the high E flat (C3 -Eb5).
      • Lyric Soprano: it is by far the most common type female is a full voice, pure and warm, not shrill, nor dramatic, ranging from middle C to high-C (C3 - C5).
      • Great lyric soprano : voice possessing the characteristics of lyric soprano, but the patch is larger, allowing it to pass through orchestras large and whose range extends from middle C to high-C (C3 - C5).
      • Lirico-spinto soprano : warm voice, able of dramatic outbursts and strong colors, ranging from middle C to high-C (C3 - C5).
    • Soprani dramatiques:
      • Dramatic soprano or wagnerian : vocals passing easily through the more expanded bands, color and hot metal at a time, ranging from low-B to  high-C (B2 - C5).
      • Falcon soprano : voice with the same characteristics as the previous type, but with a serious and acute mezzo bit easier, it runs from low-G to top-B (G2 - B4).
  • Mezzo-soprano, (also called Mezzo) :
    • Coloratura mezzo-soprano : pure voice, warm, round, and very agile, with almost a sharp soprano, but could not stay there as long as the latter, the risk of getting hurt, its range extends from the low-A to top-B  (A2 - B4).
    • Light mezzo-soprano or Dugazon (from name's Misses Dugazon, famous interpreter of the late XVIIIth century) : pure voice, warm, round, and agile, ranging from the low-A to the top-A (A2 - A4) .
    • Lyric mezzo-soprano : voice powerful medium with warm colors in the low , often very extensive on one side to the other register. Lighter and agile than the dramatic, the lyric mezzo voice retains a texture rich, immersive and dark without cumbersome.
    • Dramatic mezzo-soprano or Galli-Marié (from name's another famous French singer of the late XIXth century, Celestine Galli-Marié) : voice, warm, enveloping, powerful, serious and dark in the midrange, bright in acute, it approach the dramatic contralto, besides this type has become very rare, it is often replaced by a mezzo-soprano dramatic. The range of dramatic mezzo-soprano runs from low-G to high-A (G2 -A4).
  • Contralto:
    • Coloratura contralto : voice very agile, large, dark tone, warm, round, bright and sharp, its range extends from low-F to high-G (F2 - G4). This type of voice is as rare as dramatic contralto, it is mostly replaced by a coloratura mezzo-soprano.
    • Dramatic contralto : full voice and dark, warm tone, round and naturally rich in natural deep and low tenor, without magnification artificial. Its range extends from low-C to high-G (C2 - G4). The term contralto voice applies to women but may designate, in music baroque, a male voice. It then specifies male alto.
  • Tenor:
    • High-cons : very agile voice, high purity, bright, easy to treble, but the limited size breasts in the low and midrange, treble in distorting and extending the low-C the high-F (C2 - F4).
    • Light Tenor : same features as the previous type, but not singing voice in falsetto, stretching from low-C to high-C (C2 - C4).
    • Light lyric tenor : the same characteristics as the previous type, except the power that is stronger, but more limited than that of the lyric tenor ranges from low-C to high-C (C2 - C4).
    • Lyric tenor : full voice, warm, pure, rich and full, extending from low-C to high-C (C2 - C4).
    • Lirico-spinto tenor : same features as the previous type, but stamp wider range extending from low-C to high-C (C2 - C4).
    • Dramatic tenor : same features as the previous type, but thick patch, which allows it to pass easily through orchestras very fleshed out.
    • Heldentenor, heroic tenor, or wagnerian tenor : warm voice, extremely meaty, and powerful (over 120 dB at 1 m), low to dark-medium and in the high baritone and brilliant, but not easy, its range extends low-G or low-A to top-A (G/A - A3).
  • Bass : E1 - D3 , baritones (Ab1 - F3) are the group most acute, the lower nobility have a voice very serious and extensive (C1 - E3).
The notes in the upper extreme (above C4 for men, and above C5 for women or children) are also called "cons-xxx ". Example: C-cons is the tenor of C4, the E-cons of the soprano to E5. This classification is quite strict but it is certain that these records can vary from one individual to another. Berlioz, in his orchestration of the Treaty, said that in practice there tessituras other voices, to intermediate bass and treble voices. For men, these voices are commonly known baritone voice. For women, it is the mezzo-sopranos.

We can therefore classify tessituras as follows :
  • Voices of women and children :
    Soprano
    Mezzo-soprano
    Alto
  • Men's voices :
    Ténor
    Baryton
    Basse

Some exceptions can add to these classifications, as the voices of high-cons, male voice unusually acute. Some women have very serious voice, called woman tenor. There are more in Eastern Europe and they are widely used in choral music of Bulgaria.

Finally, some virtuoso voice can reach extremely high notes like light soprani or coloratura soprani, those for whom writing was the air of the Queen of the Night in The Magic Flute of Mozart, or even very low notes - these voices are so called noble bass or deep bass and are found occasionally in the Russians. Some male voices are exceptionally low.

Technical

The technique of singing is very complex and requires much practice to be well controlled. Contrary to popular belief, when they sing, they are not only the vocal cords that are taking action, but really the whole body.
 
Indeed, the lungs are the essential part of the instrument. It is they who provide the air to bring the vocal cords vibrate. The diaphragm (the muscle of the lungs) controls inspiration. When in position, it stops its action. The expired air is then by the abdominal muscles, transverse and oblique relied on big-right themselves directly related to the viscera (liver, intestine, stomach ...).

It's the larynx that contains the vocal cords, which tighten or relax under the complex action of several muscles. To allow the singer to make sounds of different heights, the larynx tends more or less pronounced. When he ascends or descends into the trachea, it changes the dimension of the resonator and amends the patch, but not the pitch.

There are four ways to make vocal sounds, in relation to different modes of the larynx, known mechanisms (B. Roubeau) :
  • The mechanism 0 said Fry or strowbass
  • The mechanism 1 said chest voice, the larynx is fully lowered into the throat, the sounds are crazy. For example, the bass solo at the beginning of tuba mirum from Requiem by Mozart. 
  • The mechanism 2 said  head voice, the larynx is mounted in the groove, the sounds are thin and light. Example air of Arithmetic in The Child and the Spells of Ravel's "four and four eighteen, eleven and eleven twenty-five ....
  • The mechanism 3 said whistle voice.
  • The mixed voice is not a mode of mechanism of the larynx, but a way of adapting resonators.
To practice the singer practices what is known as the vocals, exercises varied depending on whether the singer wants to work on high or low register of her voice.
  • The voice is a guttural voice through the vocal cords while creating a hoarse voice and sometimes up to reproduce a voice almost animal. Normally, if this product is no vocal cord damage is possible because no problem of loss of voice.
Voice
Female voices
Modern classification Soprano · Mezzo-soprano · Contralto
Baroque classification Top · Above-lower
Male voices
Modern classification Tenor · Baritone · Bass
Baroque classification High-cons · Size · Low-Size
Tenor-cons classification Soprano · Alto
Unclassified Barrows


Choirmaster

In music, classical, a choirmaster or cantor is a musician responsible for preparing and coordinating the various desks singing a chorus or choir to perform a musical work. He may be assisted in its work by principal musicians.
  • When the work must be performed a cappella or accompanied by a small number of instruments together for the occasion, the musical director is normally provided by the choir.
  • When the work must be performed with an orchestra, the musical direction of the assembly thus formed is usually performed by the conductor.

Among the famous choir or holds or has held an important role in vocal music include Patrick Marie Aubert, Norbert Balatsch, Frieder Bernius, Bouture Didier Philippe Caillard, Stephane Caillat, Michel Corboz, Marcel Couraud, Marcus Creed, Laurence Equilbey, Eric Ericson, John Eliot Gardiner, Yvonne Ruled, Jacques Grimbert, Philippe Herreweghe, Geoffrey Jordan, Patrick Marco, Arthur Oldham, Michel Piquemal, François Polgar, Toni Ramon, Karl Richter, Denis Rouger, John Rutter, Gerhard Schmidt Gaden, Robert Shaw, Joel Suhubiette Michel Tranchant Sofi Jeannin. Many of them are also conductors, even if they have long specialized in music with choir.

Chorister

In western music, a chorister is a musician who, in a chorus or choir, performs together a musical part in a panel - unlike the solo singer, which, as its name suggests, carries only his part.

  • According to the panel to which it belongs, the choir will be associated with a job traditional voice: soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto, tenor, baritone or bass.
  • The musical knowledge base - mainly music theory and vocal technique - even if they are very popular in a choir, are not indispensable in the choral unprofessional. Thus, contrary to what happens in the field of instrumental music where technical knowledge is circumvented easily, anyone can easily fit just singing in a choir. Becoming a chorister is a way for fans without formal musical training, to participate in the execution of works, some of which may be large.
  • In popular music - jazz, rock, pop music - the term refers to a chorus singer who accompanies the lead singer, whether on an album or concert. The word chorus in this case must be interpreted as backup (or backing) vocalist.

Soprano

In western music, in the classic, the term soprano refers primarily to the panel whose ambitus is "above" (one of the altos, tenors and basses).

In the voice area, it means the voice of a woman or child, or keyboard solo. There are however also male sopranos: the castrati of baroque and classical periods or the boys before puberty. The men singing in falsetto or countertenors are usually called sopranos, when their range is getting closer (exceptional cases) that of the soprano. It means as well as any instrument, the soprano vocal range which is above all those of his family.
For example, the soprano saxophone is above the alto saxophone (most known).

The development in power and length of voice led to the study of voice, that voice is now called typology. It describes several types of sopranos, most powerful (dramatic soprano), the most acute (light soprano).

Tessituras

In one part of the choir, choir or vocal ensemble, its scope goes to B2 C5 (C-cons), which is two octaves. This voice is often responsible for singing the melody. If it is a soprano soloist, we then speak of her voice type (below).
In a polyphonic structure, if any particular vocal or instrumental source is mentioned, the soprano is simply the upper part, located above the alto. It is not attached to the tessitura of the voice but that of his family's perspective tessituras, there is no strict relationship between that of an instrument "soprano" and that of "soprano voice" for example, the beak-flute soprano,"sounds" an octave higher than the soprano voice.

Power

In classical music, the voice is worked to deliver a maximum power of at least 80 dB at one meter (which corresponds to a voice said to show, or concert).

In typolmogy voice, it uses the modern meanings: lyrical, lirico-spinto, dramatic, to describe the power of voice (gradually in order).

Be careful though, because if we talk of light soprano, it indicates both a low voice and a vocal range more acutely.

Placement of voice

Consistent with the classical beauty of the soprano voice has been built on an aesthetic homogeneity of the patch (no sensation of breaking from low to high), and developed his power of technology increasingly demanding (size of scenes). The specificity of the soprano is that it often works to his low tones not to use his chest voice, or as lightly as possible.

Alto (voice)

In classical music, an alto (plural : altos or alti) is a type of job in a chorus, whose ambitus matches almost exactly in the range of the contralto voice. However, all belonging to the choir viola section did not necessarily "true voice of contralto". These are often mezzo-soprano with easy low tones, whose color is lighter than a contralto.

If the altos are frequently female singers, one may be dealing with male altos in the following two assumptions :
  1. In a children's choir, the alto section is naturally composed of male voices with the most serious.
  2. In several vocal ensembles, including interpreting the repertoire of baroque music, the alto section meets very common for men using the technique of falsetto - also known as: countertenors. The presence of men among the altos and sometimes brings a powerful extra brightness to the entire panel, as the men sing in the treble of their range, while women use their range rather serious.

Tenor

In western music, the term tenor (from the latin tenere = to hold) means an instrument or ambitus between alto and bass. In vocal music (baroque excepted), it is the male voice the most acute.

Figuratively, and referring to tenor soloists in XIXth century, gained fame in the operatic field, the word "tenor" usually refers to a man known for his talent in that activity.
Examples: "tenor of the Bar" to describe a successful lawyer, a "tenor of politics" to describe a famous politician, and so on.

Vocal music

In the Middle Ages, the word tenor had several meanings. Early medieval polyphony are almost exclusively vocal. This origin explains that in a chorus, the word tenor refers primarily a desk, whose ambitus is between that of the altos and bass. By extension, the term includes the members of this panel, and this, whatever their true voice type.

When writing music becomes harmonic from the XIVth century, the term came to designate a male voice usually acute, responsible for the main melody - often punctuated by long values - as opposed to other voices, above and below - including figures rhythmic richer and more varied - whose function was to provide counterpoint to the tenor part. In conservatories and music schools, the duties ofharmony are still today prepared for a quartet consisting of soprano, alto, tenor and bass.

Vocal typology

Enrico Caruso, one of the greatest tenors
In classical music, the tenor is the type of male voice whose range is most acute.

It goes without saying that the voices of young boys, castrati and countertenors are sharper than the tenor voice, but these are classified separately because their vocal technique is totally different.

The term "tenor" is used at the end of the XVIIIth century, succeeding the designations of "size" and "high-cons".

There are several categories of tenors whose differ of the characters they portrayed, and the valor of voice and rich tone, being the constant range, which extends most of the C2 to B3.

If until the middle of the XIXth century, the highs were issued in the "falsetto" (falsetto in Italian) or "head voice" in the baroque style, the "chest voice" - stronger but less extensive - is gradually imposed from the 1840s under the leadership of French tenor Gilbert Duprez. This development explains, for example, in Italian opera, bel canto works (Bellini, Rossini) generally have high tessituras but instrumentation minor roles while verists (Puccini) are less acute but more with orchestrations provided.

Baritone (voice)

In western music, a baritone is a singer whose voice has an average range between the tenors and basses. The term - from Greek barytonos : whose voice has a low tone - is often used for solo voice, but can also be used for a voice in a desk.

Le baritone, voice of soloist

When the word baritone voice means a soloist, he means the type of male voice whose range is midway between those of the tenor and bass. The term is apparent that at the end of the XVIIIth century to describe a class voice. Previously, this type of voice was called concordant or low-size. There are several categories which differ by baritones of the characters they portrayed, and the valor of voice and rich tone, the remaining constant range, which extends most of the G1 to G3.

Bass (voice)

In western music, a bass is a singer with a deep voice, originally tasked with running the "low" of a polyphonic singing.

Panel member into a choir

In a chorus (or choir), the word bass means primarily a panel, whose ambitus is below that of the tenors. By extension, the term includes the members of this panel, and this, whatever their true typology voice.

Vocal typology

Regarding the soloists, a bass is the type of male voice whose range is the lower.

  • There are several categories which differ in the low nature of the characters they portrayed, and the valor of voice and rich tone, often remaining constant tessitura, which extends most of the E1 to E3.

(Source: wikipedia.org - copyright authors - article under GFDL)

(26/01/2010 22:50)

(21/07/2009 13:45)

St. Cecilia - by Lud_Bienaim 11/06/2009 15:18 

But do we really know the history of St.Cecilia?

"The legend of St.Cecilia"

For more than a thousand years, Cecilia has been one of the martyrs of the early Church's most revered. His name, that she founded a church and was buried in a crypt of the Catacombs of St.Callistus, the context as the existence of Valerian and a Tubercius is all that is historically verifiable has subject. However, it is certain that this holy life is based on some facts.

The story of St.Cecilia, which is not devoid of beauty and merit, is built partly on legends. The romance of Cecilia and Valerian is known for the legendary passion of Cecile written in 535. At that time, many church founders and martyrs were canonized. The first mention of Cecilia in the canon of the Mass date from 496.

 

St.Cecilia is born into the noble family of Rome practitioner Coecilia which many senators are from. She possessed all the gifts of grace, beauty and innocence that a girl could have. Rich and educated, she was fervent arts and had a special talent for music. Very young, she devoted her life to God and vowed to virginity.

Against her will, her father married a young pagan named Valerian. The wedding day arrived, and while everyone sang and danced, Cecilia had retired to invoke the protection of Heaven in this difficult situation, while singing in his heart and reciting psalms. This is the origin of the veneration in time patron of music. Valerian, a remarkable man, was known to be of great understanding.

The evening of the marriage when the young couple found themselves in their room, Cecilia tells her husband :
- I'll tell you a secret he must swear not to divulge to anyone. I am accompanied by an angel who watches over me. If you touch me in the context of marriage, he gets angry and you will suffer. If you respect my decision, he will love you as he loves me.

Valerian replied
- Show me this angel.

She said :
- If you believe in God, and you become known, you'll see. Valerian accepted as his wife Cecilia and promised to respect his wish not claim the rights of the marriage.

I was very impressed by the piety and the state of grace of his wife. With the support of Pope Urbain St, Cecilia managed to convert her husband to Christianity and to be baptized.

Returning to his wife, he found her in prayer with an angel with wings of fire next to her. Angel Cecilia crowned with roses and lilacs and Valerian said :
- Get the crowns, they are a sign from heaven. They never dry out or lose their scent. As for you Valerian, ask me what you want. He wished that his brother Tiburcius, which was very expensive, accompanies him in his faith. His wish was accepted. When Tiburcius entered the house, the fragrant flowers are invisible to her eyes seized and he was persuaded by Cecile and Valerian to renounce his false gods. He converted and was baptized by St.Urban.

The young couple lived in chastity, devoted themselves to good works. Cecilia was singing the praises of God diligently and often added to a musical instrument.

But cruel persecution of Christians, committed by the emperor Marcus Aurelius have because of them. Because of their eagerness to bury the bodies of Christian martyrs in the catacombs outside the city, they were arrested. The prefect Almachius incited them to renounce their faith they refused. So that they can not make arrangements to donate their property, they were sentenced to flogging after being decapitated. Maximus, the officer responsible for making the award, after seeing an apparition of martyrs, suddenly converted to Christianity and suffered the same fate. The three men were executed around Rome.

Braving danger, Cecilia buried in the catacombs of St Praetextatus on the Appian Way and decided to use his future home to preach the faith. With unmatched eloquence, Cecilia converts more people. One day, when Pope Urban visited him at home, he baptized more than 400 people.

Shortly after Valerian, she was arrested and brought before the prefect for having buried the bodies of her husband and Tiburcius. She had no other choice than the veneration of pagan gods or death. After a glorious confession of faith, she was sentenced to death.

But carry out a daughter of such a noble work for the poor was not easy even during the cruel emperors. Rejecting a public performance she was sentenced to be locked in the bathroom (sudatorium) of his own house in Trastevere and suffocated by the steam. The grate was charged seven times its normal load. The heat and humidity had no reason for it. When she fell unconscious, after one day and one night the angry warden ordered the beheading.

 

At the sight of the holy, the soldier lost his courage and sent trembling struck three times, but in vain. The Roman law prohibiting the fourth stroke, she was left lying in his blood. Immediately the Christians rushed into the house and wiped the wounds with linen garments, without moving the soil. Cecilia survived three days during which she never ceased to preach his faith and to encourage the poor. When St.Urbain arrived, she donated his house to build a church and bequeathed his possessions to the poor. Then turning his face against the ground, Cecilia died Nov. 22 in the year 230.

 

She was buried in the exact position where she died, with fingers extended, into the Catacombs of St.Callistus beside the crypt of the popes, his feet, his clothes had suffered wounds. The Catacombs of St.Callistus are among the largest in Roma. This set cimeteral built in the mid second century, occupying 15 hectares of land consists of 20 km of tunnels at several levels at 20 meters underground.

In 817, Paschal 1st began to move out of thousands of corpses decaying catacombs, to places more secure and safe from intruders. But the relics of Cecilia remained untraceable. One morning in the year 822, while he celebrated in Rome, Cecilia appeared to the Pope Paschal 1st, revealing the location of the burial. It was found the same day in the catacombs of St.Callistus. In the cypress coffin was Cecilia dressed in a robe of gold cloth and linen garments soaked with blood at his feet. It also brought to light the tomb of Valerian, and Maximus Tiburcius. The pope make transfer Cecile under the main altar of the church in Trastevere, which was later called: Titulus Sanctae Caeciliae "Church founded by a woman named Cecilia. Placed in the position discovery, the pope placed the coffin in a marble sarcophagus. Valerian and her friends were placed in another location of the Chapel.

Under the reign of Pope Clement VIII in 1599, during renovation of the church of Santa Cecilia and the construction of its high altar, Cardinal Paul Emilius Sfondrati opened the tomb and found the white marble sarcophagus containing the body of Cecilia intact.

After more 800 years, she was miraculously and beautifully preserved. Lying on the right side face against the ground, as in a deep sleep, his neck still bore traces of blows. The green and gold of her dress luxury were not altered by time. There is no other similar case in the history of the Church : the preservation of a body in the position of death and immortalized in marble. At the opening of his tomb, artists were allowed to paint tables and images. Thousands of people had the privilege of seeing her in her coffin and during 4-5 weeks, she was exposed for veneration. Then the body was decomposed rapidly on contact with air.

 

At present Cecilia and Valerian are reunited for eternity. Their relics and that of St.Urban are sumptuous in a vault under the great altar of St.Cecilia in Trastevere which was dedicated by Sfondrati. The closing ceremony of the tomb with the relics in a silver casket was attended by the pope himself and 42 cardinals.

 

Under this altar is a beautiful marble statue carved in 1601 by Stefano Maderno and faithfully representing the martyrdom in a pool of blood as it fell after the shots and as we found her at the opening of his tomb in 1599. In this work, Maderno, fell in love with her, was able to express the grace of Cecile working marble in a representation bright and warm. " A replica of this statue occupies the original site of the saint in the catacombs of Callistus, where the crypt of St.Cecilia is entirely decorated with frescoes and mosaics (early IXth century). On the wall near the replica of the statue is an ancient image of Saint Cecilia in an attitude of prayer.

 

 

Until the middle ages, the patron of musicians was Pope St.Gregory, but when the music academy in Roma was founded in 1584, she was placed under the protection of St.Cecilia. Thus establishing its veneration become universal, as the patroness of musicians. The association of St.Cecilia with music dates from the late Vth century and is due to the pilgrims come to see the relics. She became the subject of many representations (painting, frescoes, mosaics) and is the source of prayers, songs that have contributed to its popularity. Dryden wrote "A Song for St.Cecilia's Day" and the poet Alexander Pope wrote "Ode to Music for the Feast of St.Cecilia".

 

Since the XVth century, the emblem of St.Cecilia became the organ. In pictorial representations, she is depicted with an organ, a harp or other musical instrument. Previously, she was crowned with roses, bearing a palm or busy converting her husband St.Valerian, etc... The earliest images of Cecilia without musical instruments were found in the VIth century Roman frescoes in the catacombs of San Callisto. After she was painted in organist by Raphael, her image has become a favorite topic for the windows.

St.Cecilia patron of music, musicians, composers and singers, of luthiers, of poets, is celebrated on November 22.

St. Cecilia - by Lud_Bienaim 11/06/2009 15:18 

But do we really know the history of St.Cecilia?

"The legend of St.Cecilia"

For more than a thousand years, Cecilia has been one of the martyrs of the early Church's most revered. His name, that she founded a church and was buried in a crypt of the Catacombs of St.Callistus, the context as the existence of Valerian and a Tubercius is all that is historically verifiable has subject. However, it is certain that this holy life is based on some facts.

The story of St.Cecilia, which is not devoid of beauty and merit, is built partly on legends. The romance of Cecilia and Valerian is known for the legendary passion of Cecile written in 535. At that time, many church founders and martyrs were canonized. The first mention of Cecilia in the canon of the Mass date from 496.

 

St.Cecilia is born into the noble family of Rome practitioner Coecilia which many senators are from. She possessed all the gifts of grace, beauty and innocence that a girl could have. Rich and educated, she was fervent arts and had a special talent for music. Very young, she devoted her life to God and vowed to virginity.

Against her will, her father married a young pagan named Valerian. The wedding day arrived, and while everyone sang and danced, Cecilia had retired to invoke the protection of Heaven in this difficult situation, while singing in his heart and reciting psalms. This is the origin of the veneration in time patron of music. Valerian, a remarkable man, was known to be of great understanding.

The evening of the marriage when the young couple found themselves in their room, Cecilia tells her husband :
- I'll tell you a secret he must swear not to divulge to anyone. I am accompanied by an angel who watches over me. If you touch me in the context of marriage, he gets angry and you will suffer. If you respect my decision, he will love you as he loves me.

Valerian replied
- Show me this angel.

She said :
- If you believe in God, and you become known, you'll see. Valerian accepted as his wife Cecilia and promised to respect his wish not claim the rights of the marriage.

I was very impressed by the piety and the state of grace of his wife. With the support of Pope Urbain St, Cecilia managed to convert her husband to Christianity and to be baptized.

Returning to his wife, he found her in prayer with an angel with wings of fire next to her. Angel Cecilia crowned with roses and lilacs and Valerian said :
- Get the crowns, they are a sign from heaven. They never dry out or lose their scent. As for you Valerian, ask me what you want. He wished that his brother Tiburcius, which was very expensive, accompanies him in his faith. His wish was accepted. When Tiburcius entered the house, the fragrant flowers are invisible to her eyes seized and he was persuaded by Cecile and Valerian to renounce his false gods. He converted and was baptized by St.Urban.

The young couple lived in chastity, devoted themselves to good works. Cecilia was singing the praises of God diligently and often added to a musical instrument.

But cruel persecution of Christians, committed by the emperor Marcus Aurelius have because of them. Because of their eagerness to bury the bodies of Christian martyrs in the catacombs outside the city, they were arrested. The prefect Almachius incited them to renounce their faith they refused. So that they can not make arrangements to donate their property, they were sentenced to flogging after being decapitated. Maximus, the officer responsible for making the award, after seeing an apparition of martyrs, suddenly converted to Christianity and suffered the same fate. The three men were executed around Rome.

Braving danger, Cecilia buried in the catacombs of St Praetextatus on the Appian Way and decided to use his future home to preach the faith. With unmatched eloquence, Cecilia converts more people. One day, when Pope Urban visited him at home, he baptized more than 400 people.

Shortly after Valerian, she was arrested and brought before the prefect for having buried the bodies of her husband and Tiburcius. She had no other choice than the veneration of pagan gods or death. After a glorious confession of faith, she was sentenced to death.

But carry out a daughter of such a noble work for the poor was not easy even during the cruel emperors. Rejecting a public performance she was sentenced to be locked in the bathroom (sudatorium) of his own house in Trastevere and suffocated by the steam. The grate was charged seven times its normal load. The heat and humidity had no reason for it. When she fell unconscious, after one day and one night the angry warden ordered the beheading.

 

At the sight of the holy, the soldier lost his courage and sent trembling struck three times, but in vain. The Roman law prohibiting the fourth stroke, she was left lying in his blood. Immediately the Christians rushed into the house and wiped the wounds with linen garments, without moving the soil. Cecilia survived three days during which she never ceased to preach his faith and to encourage the poor. When St.Urbain arrived, she donated his house to build a church and bequeathed his possessions to the poor. Then turning his face against the ground, Cecilia died Nov. 22 in the year 230.

 

She was buried in the exact position where she died, with fingers extended, into the Catacombs of St.Callistus beside the crypt of the popes, his feet, his clothes had suffered wounds. The Catacombs of St.Callistus are among the largest in Roma. This set cimeteral built in the mid second century, occupying 15 hectares of land consists of 20 km of tunnels at several levels at 20 meters underground.

In 817, Paschal 1st began to move out of thousands of corpses decaying catacombs, to places more secure and safe from intruders. But the relics of Cecilia remained untraceable. One morning in the year 822, while he celebrated in Rome, Cecilia appeared to the Pope Paschal 1st, revealing the location of the burial. It was found the same day in the catacombs of St.Callistus. In the cypress coffin was Cecilia dressed in a robe of gold cloth and linen garments soaked with blood at his feet. It also brought to light the tomb of Valerian, and Maximus Tiburcius. The pope make transfer Cecile under the main altar of the church in Trastevere, which was later called: Titulus Sanctae Caeciliae "Church founded by a woman named Cecilia. Placed in the position discovery, the pope placed the coffin in a marble sarcophagus. Valerian and her friends were placed in another location of the Chapel.

Under the reign of Pope Clement VIII in 1599, during renovation of the church of Santa Cecilia and the construction of its high altar, Cardinal Paul Emilius Sfondrati opened the tomb and found the white marble sarcophagus containing the body of Cecilia intact.

After more 800 years, she was miraculously and beautifully preserved. Lying on the right side face against the ground, as in a deep sleep, his neck still bore traces of blows. The green and gold of her dress luxury were not altered by time. There is no other similar case in the history of the Church : the preservation of a body in the position of death and immortalized in marble. At the opening of his tomb, artists were allowed to paint tables and images. Thousands of people had the privilege of seeing her in her coffin and during 4-5 weeks, she was exposed for veneration. Then the body was decomposed rapidly on contact with air.

 

At present Cecilia and Valerian are reunited for eternity. Their relics and that of St.Urban are sumptuous in a vault under the great altar of St.Cecilia in Trastevere which was dedicated by Sfondrati. The closing ceremony of the tomb with the relics in a silver casket was attended by the pope himself and 42 cardinals.

 

Under this altar is a beautiful marble statue carved in 1601 by Stefano Maderno and faithfully representing the martyrdom in a pool of blood as it fell after the shots and as we found her at the opening of his tomb in 1599. In this work, Maderno, fell in love with her, was able to express the grace of Cecile working marble in a representation bright and warm. " A replica of this statue occupies the original site of the saint in the catacombs of Callistus, where the crypt of St.Cecilia is entirely decorated with frescoes and mosaics (early IXth century). On the wall near the replica of the statue is an ancient image of Saint Cecilia in an attitude of prayer.

 

 

Until the middle ages, the patron of musicians was Pope St.Gregory, but when the music academy in Roma was founded in 1584, she was placed under the protection of St.Cecilia. Thus establishing its veneration become universal, as the patroness of musicians. The association of St.Cecilia with music dates from the late Vth century and is due to the pilgrims come to see the relics. She became the subject of many representations (painting, frescoes, mosaics) and is the source of prayers, songs that have contributed to its popularity. Dryden wrote "A Song for St.Cecilia's Day" and the poet Alexander Pope wrote "Ode to Music for the Feast of St.Cecilia".

 

Since the XVth century, the emblem of St.Cecilia became the organ. In pictorial representations, she is depicted with an organ, a harp or other musical instrument. Previously, she was crowned with roses, bearing a palm or busy converting her husband St.Valerian, etc... The earliest images of Cecilia without musical instruments were found in the VIth century Roman frescoes in the catacombs of San Callisto. After she was painted in organist by Raphael, her image has become a favorite topic for the windows.

St.Cecilia patron of music, musicians, composers and singers, of luthiers, of poets, is celebrated on November 22.

(11/06/2009 15:18)

05/08/2020 03:34