The tuba is a brass instrument with a mouthpiece, a conical bore very charged and equipped with piston variable number.
Historical outline : Coming from the distant horn key, the cornetto, the ophicleide and flugelhorn to the tuba is a key achievement of the 19th century. It first appeared in Germany in 1835, with three pistons, built by Moritz on data Wieprecht, Chief Military Bands Prussia. Spontini favored the introduction of instruments pistons France, also in 1836, were built in Paris baritones B flat and basses in B flat or in C. In 1840, Adolphe Sax (1814-1894) perfected these tools so, from the point of view of acoustics and mechanics, he renewed them completely.
The tuba is like other brass instruments, is a tube folded upon itself under whose flag flare but deeper than the horn goes up in instruments range median or low while in acute instruments (flugelhorn) adopt the horizontal direction of the trumpet.
Three kinds of snorkels are in common use today in the orchestra : tuba six pistons, the bass tuba and tenor tuba.
Tuba six-piston : It has six pistons in C, has the prodigious extent of four octaves. This tuba is practically used in France where it is deemed to "go anywhere" because of its extraordinary flexibility and relative ease as severe as in the treble.
Tenor tuba : (actually the saxhorn baritone in B flat) and the tuba six-piston continues the bass tuba in the high or substitutes. The tuba is sometimes used in groups, in the spirit of a choir and did Bruckner example, especially in his eighth symphony.
Bass tuba : or contrabass is in C and French experts are beginning to prefer the latter six-piston tuba (it is used abroad other than our bass Saxhorn in B flat) that sound more round, fuller and more powerful than the tuba to six pistons. No doubt his extended - a fifth shorter because in principle it does not rise to that F - did not allow it to play all the solos in the orchestra, but more than anything else, because of its roundness and its magnitude, it provides a lower ideal for all wood and brass.
The tuba is not a heavy instrument as will be generally included. He reached the contrary, in the medium, to a surprising agility. It can have any flexibility with its registry. He can play pianissimo (pp) on the same grave, and, if he wants to dominate the whole orchestra (especially the bass tuba). The tuba is confined in a rigorous style that enhances the art of music.
Anthony-Joseph Sax , better known by the name of Adolphe Sax (November 6, 1814 in Dinant, Belgium - February 4, 1894 in Paris) is a Belgian mailman of musical instrument, best known for inventing the saxophone. His father, Charles Joseph Sax, who was already himself a mailman of musical instrument, has made several changes to hunting horn. Adolphe Sax began making his own instruments very young, with two flutes and a clarinet into a competition at the age of 15 years. He then studied those two instruments at the Royal School of Singing in Brussels. It becomes a master of the clarinet to the point that competition is forbidden in his country.