The trumpet

(Source: VitriFolk)

Trumpet


History of the Trumpet

The first trumpets were made of bone, wood, bamboo, clay, horn or even shell. Today, the Aborigines of Australia play the didgeridoo , a trumpet made of wood. They used to scare the animals dangerous to repel the enemy, to sound the alarm. They are also used to chase away evil spirits.
The first trumpets were invented in ancient times, they appeared in Egypt there are over three thousand years. When they opened the tomb of Tutankhamen in 1922, we discovered two trumpets: one made of copper and gold and one silver. In the Middle Ages, the "wrong" right shape also is used for hunting and for the army. Then the conical bore pipe is gradually bent to form three parallel branches (the "flag", the "mouth" and the lower branch) connected by bends.


Ceremonial Trumpets

The trumpets played a major role among the Romans. When the trumpet was popular in Europe, she saw her role expand military and ceremonial. In 1902, when the Doge left Venice, two hundred trumpets greeted his departure, accompanied by drums and other instruments.
The Crusaders were often greeted with great fanfare of trumpets and drums by Muslims, who were seeking to scare. The ancient trumpets were long and straight, which allowed to hang banners at the ceremonies, but on the battlefield, CETE form could prove a handicap. Also, the late 14th century, one live show a new S-shaped trumpet, the instrument could keep a horse with one hand.


Trumpets Medieval

The late 14th century and early 15th centuries were important periods in the evolution of the trumpet. Factors trumpets French were the first to bend the instrument in the form of S, announcing the advent of the modern trumpet. But this new model did not enjoy immediate success.

We continued to make trumpets straight for another two hundred years.
Nuremberg became the center of European manufacturing trumpets there produced the highest quality brass and sometimes precious metal. At the coronation of Christian IV of Denmark in 1588, sixty-four musicians embouchèrent of silver trumpets.
Each major city had its own trumpet, directly related to municipal authorities. They could play in royal ceremonies and civil, and in the regiments of cavalry. Jealous of their privileges, the senior musicians were getting together in guilds (associations).

Natural Trumpets

Ancient trumpets are called natural because they had neither keys or finger holes (like the flute or oboe) and the instruments had to rely solely on their lips to produce the notes, as in our modern trumpet. Their record was so small extent, and composers could not give that party trumpets rather limited. Some crooks allowed to vary the tone , but some notes remained imposible to obtain.


Over the centuries, the factors of trumpets have developed very different models.

Trumpets Pistons

The trumpet was increasingly used in orchestral music, and manufacturers sought to develop an instrument capable of playing the tone of the notes. We first designed a trumpet fitted with a slide like a trombone, then built a trumpet with keys like a flute. But the invention was crucial that the pistons, 1820. Now, the instrument could play all the notes of the range it was also easier to use, and a good sound. The trumpet could finally be treated on an equal footing with other members of the orchestra.


Trumpeter of the British army.

Today, the trumpet remains a military instrument Musically, the trumpet is a very diverse, which finds its place both in a symphony orchestra in a set of jazz or even in areas as diverse as major concerts Group of Rock ! His record extends from murmur to fortissimo most acute. In the orchestra, its brilliant sound well, and many composers have used to enhance the dramatic intensity of certain passages. Combined with trombone, trumpets give the orchestra its full output power.

Trumpeter Models



 

TRUMPET IN UT

Unlike trumpets built in other tones, trumpet in C does not transpose: the notes sound like they were written. The C trumpet in the orchestra appeared at the end of the 19th century. In a sharper tone than the trumpet in B flat, it is also shorter, although the flag is the same size. Its sound is particularly bright in the treble, and composers use it to intensify highlights passages from their works.

FLAT TRUMPET IN MI

The bicentenary of the birth of JS Bach in 1885 brought a renewed interest in his music. Indeed, many of his major works include parts for trumpets acute. Factors brass, to meet the demand instrumentalists, produced new models. Among them, only the trumpet in E flat is still used today. In a clever design, it is actually two instruments in one: it can reduce up to D, and thus play a wider repertoire.

PICCOLO TRUMPET

"Piccolo" is an Italian word meaning "quick" in the musical lexicon, it applies to instruments smaller and more igus their class. The piccolo trumpet is the most acute current trumpets. Compared to other brass instruments, it is relatively recent: it was invented in 1885 by F. Besson manufacturer a special hearing of the Magnificat by JS Bach, whose trumpet part is written in a high-pitched tone. Its warm sound and flexible leads the choir and full orchestra.

 

TRUMPET IN B FLAT

The B-flat trumpet dates from the early 19th century when the invention of the piston revolutionized the design and manufacture of brass. The B-flat trumpet spread first in Germany, but in fifty years, it became the most popular instrument in the orchestra, with its rightness of tone and its good sound. Today is the most used in orchestras, brass bands and jazz.


Creation date : 09/02/2009 16:35
Last update : 17/03/2009 08:17
Category : Files - Instruments-Brass
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Glossary

Johann Sebastian Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach (March 21, 1685 to July 28, 1750),  in french Jean-Sebastien Bach is a German composer, harpsichordist, organist and  violinist.
Composer of the Baroque era which symbolizes and personifies the peak, he had a major influence in the sustainable development of western music by great composers such as Mozart and Beethoven, recognized him as an unsurpassed master.
He was a musician who mastered the manufacture of instruments as well as instrumental technique, composition as improvisation, pedagogy and the management of a musical institution.
Known during his lifetime as an organist and improviser, his music was quickly forgotten, however, after his death, as unfashionable and his work, with few exceptions, written and never published, partly dispersed and lost, was rediscovered and studied by romantics.

JS-Bach.jpg

The jazz

The jazz is a music type born in the United States at the beginning of the XXth century. Existent of the crossroads of the blues, the ragtime and European music, the jazz is considered to be the first specific musical form to have developed in the United States.

The Rock

The rock is a genre of popular music that began in the 1960s.
The genre has its roots in rock 'n' roll, rhythm and blues, country, 1940s and 1950s as well as in folk music, jazz and classical music. It is characterized by a dominant vocal melody, often accompanied by one (or more) electric guitar, bass guitar and drums, but can also be accompanied by synth / piano, brass or other instruments.

During the late 1960s and early 1970s, rock developed a number of sub-genres. It was blended with folk music, (which gave the folk rock), with the blues (blues rock) and jazz (jazz-rock fusion).
In the 1970s, rock was influenced by soul, funk, and Latin music. Also during the 1970s, rock developed many sub-genres like soft rock, glam rock, heavy metal, hard rock, progressive rock, and punk rock.

Among the sub-genres of rock that emerged during the 1980s there is the new wave, hardcore punk and alternative rock.
During the 1990s, the new sub-genres include rock grunge and Britpop, indie rock, and nu metal.

A group of musicians specializing in rock is called a rock band. Most rock bands are composed of an electric guitarist, a lead singer, a bassist and a drummer, forming a quartet. Some groups omit one or more of these roles include a singer or playing an instrument, even as he sings, forming a trio or duo; others include additional musicians such as one or two rhythm guitarist or a keyboardist. Less commonly, groups also utilize stringed instruments like violins or cellos, wind instruments like a saxophone, brass or instruments such as trumpets or trombones.

More recently, the term rock was used as a generic term including forms like pop music, soul and even hip hop, with whom he is often opposed. [One] The Rock has become a "philosophy "with its cultural dominance, film comics through fashionable clothing.

The Symphony Orchestra

A symphony orchestra is a musical ensemble consisting of four families of instruments: strings, woodwinds, brass and percussion.
It comes from the string orchestra of the baroque period which was gradually expanded the oboe, bassoon, sometimes horns, trumpets, and timpani.
The classical period with Gossec, Haydn and Mozart often seen winds s'architecturer by two (2 flutes, 2 oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets).
The desks of the Romantic period s'ordonnancent rather with the addition of three more or less systematic instruments like the piccolo, English horn, bass clarinet, saxophone, contrabassoon, trombones and tuba.
It is also the time who knows the great evolution of percussion.
In the early twentieth century, the symphony can be large, generally, more than eighty musicians, sometimes exceeding the number hundred instrumentalists.
Since the late seventeenth century, its main function is dedicated to the performance in the concert hall, symphonic works and concertos, secular or sacred.
This course is also used for accompaniment in the pit in the opera houses, performances of opera or dance.
The composers of film scores, incidental music heiresses, they too use all the resources and expressive music of the symphony orchestra.

Tone

In western music, the word means a tone scale music belonging to the tonal system.

  • Caught in a broad sense, the word "tone" can refer to the tonal system as a whole.
  • The word can also take the direction of height, its fundamental to some instruments.
  • The word tone can be used as a synonym for tone.

A tone is defined as the set of intervals, melodic and harmonic as well, between hierarchical levels of a given scale compared to its fundamental level, called tonic. A tone is characterized by both the tonic and its mode.
Each key is constructed from the diatonic scale.

The tone is also a means to locate a musical instrument in relation to C reference.
The flute, violin or piano are in C, that is to say that when the C is played, it really means to do. The B-flat trumpet sounded really flat so when playing a do. The horn (in F) is heard when playing an F do.

The tone is very important because it will allow transposition and transcription of partitions in C in tones of instruments with different pitches.

Some instruments and their tone:

  • Ut: Piano, strings, flutes and piccolo, oboe, bassoon, C trumpet, trombone, tuba, bass tuba.
  • D flat: the old piccolos.
  • Re: Trumpet in D.
  • Eb: alto saxophone and baritone, small bugle, horn in E flat, alto (small tuba), clarinet, bass tuba.
  • F: Cor.
  • Sol: Trumpet in G.
  • The: Oboe d'amore, the trumpet.
  • Bb: soprano saxophone, tenor tuba (euphonium and baritone), B-flat trumpet, flugelhorn, clarinet, bass tuba (bombardon).