The drums are percussion instruments consisting of a copper basin covered with a skin. The musician plays it by hitting the skin with special sticks. The player of timpani is known as a timpanist. The main feature of the timpani is the possibility to grant to obtain accurate heights. Using a foot pedal, the tension on the skin may be increased or decreased, affecting the sound. Each drum is a different size to obtain a wider register: timpanist may well change your tune quickly by hitting a drum to another, and prepare for future notes by adjusting the pedals during the blank (the adjusting the pedal is slightly faster and can not be made between two successive notes). Initially conceived as military drums, the drums become a basic instrument of the orchestra classic in the XVIIth century. They are widely used in all types of formations, marching band or even groups of rock . In an orchestra or wind ensemble ( harmony ), the drums are usually number four or five, but he arrives to see only two or three.
Acoustics: The peculiarity of these instruments provide a note of given height, which is very rare for the Membrane of percussion instruments (the other exception is the Indian tabla). The membranes, in contrast to strings or air columns, show no resonance frequency following a series harmonic . The origin of this tuning option is that the first mode of vibration (fundamental) is eventually recouped many (for training of air around the diaphragm) and low radiation. The modes involving the nodal diameters radiate much more efficiently and are, for the first of them, close to a harmonic series. The coupling with the cavity has the effect of shifting certain modes of the membrane, making these frequencies even closer to a harmonic series. The first 4 or 5 modes are then "assigned". The drummers ensure therefore minimally excite the first mode, hitting the membrane at about half the radius, which appropriates nodal diameter modes.
The etymology of the word comes from the Latin "tympanum" which designated a drum used in the Phrygian orgies and mysteries of Cybele.
They produce a bass sound and deep, compared to the drum. Thanks to various rods, we obtain a rich variety of timbres and sound intensities. Most chopsticks are made of wood while the tip is covered with felt, flannel, wood, cork, sponge, or other materials. The head of the rods may also be of different sizes. The timpanist can also muffle the sound of drums by placing a piece of cloth, opposite the point of striking. When desiring a short note, we can stop the vibration of the tensioned membrane with the fingertips. To play a long note, however, the timpanist uses small strokes close together so they do not appear discontinuous. (Ball or tremolo).
The score of timpani is written in bass clef. To pay the bill for his drum, the drummer changes the pedal position is indicated by a needle, which is placed in a small dial with markers for each note written in letters, according to the Anglo-Saxon. Thus, the timpanist uses the display for the setting to display the note in his cup.
Last update : 04/04/2009 19:30
Category : Files - Instruments-Percussion
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