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Sentence to think about :  In the busy world of show business, it is not necessary to be a good musician to be familiar with the music.  Pierre Dac
Sentence to think about :  I am not a musician, but I love music passionately, and if air touches me, it amuses me, I listen with delight, I will not consider whether the music is French or Italian, I think Just as there is only one.  Carlo Goldoni
Sentence to think about :  That you become a teacher, scholar, or musician, have respect for the "sense", but do not imagine it is taught.  Hermann Hesse
Sentence to think about :  To make a bad musician, it takes at least five years of study. As for making a bad actor, it only takes ten minutes.  Coluche
Sentence to think about :  The musician is someone who can be relied on to provide reassurance to the neighbor, but it is also a reminder of what human excellence.  Yehudi Menuhin
Sentence to think about :  In the artistic hierarchy, the birds are the greatest musicians that exist on our planet.  Olivier Messiaen
Sentence to think about :  The music is the soul in harmony with all that exists.  Oscar Wilde
Sentence to think about :  The vase gives form to the emptiness, and music to silence.  Georges Braque
Sentence to think about :  What good attendance Plato, when a saxophone can also do us a glimpse of another world ?  Emil Michel Cioran
Sentence to think about :  Without music, life would be a mistake.  Friedrich Nietzsche
Sentence to think about :  We do not sell music. We share it.  Leonard Bernstein
Sentence to think about :  The more one knows about music, the less one is able to say something worthwhile.  Patrick Süskind
Sentence to think about :  The opera is opera, the symphony is the symphony, and I do not think it is nice to dance with the orchestra.  Giuseppe Verdi
Sentence to think about :  Mass of love - it seems that music is that for women.  Edmond et Jules de Goncourt
Sentence to think about :  There is no music more enjoyable than the variations of tunes.  Joseph Joubert
Sentence to think about :  Music is a higher revelation than all wisdom and philosophy.  Ludwig van Beethoven
Sentence to think about :  The real music is silence, and all notes are framed by silence.  Miles Davis
Sentence to think about :  The music, the most beautiful religion in the world where we are not threatened or promised.  Minou Drouet
Sentence to think about :  Jazz is what allows us to escape from everyday life.  Stéphane Grappelli
Sentence to think about :  The music deserves a second language compulsory in all schools in the world.  Paul Carvel
Sentence to think about :  Music gives a soul to our hearts and wings to thought.  Platon
Sentence to think about :  The beauty of music - like light - is that of speed, mobility, elusive.  Jean-Michel Jarre
Sentence to think about :  You do not need a brain to listen to music.  Luciano Pavarotti
Sentence to think about :  Music should humbly seek to please, the extreme complication is contrary to art.  Claude Debussy
Sentence to think about :  People who do not stand a chance to change the music world are those who do not like music.  Ben Harper
Sentence to think about :  The music drives the hatred in those who are without love. It gives peace to those who are restless, she comforts those who mourn.  Pablo Casals
Sentence to think about :  Our era is no longer music. She hides in the noise of men in their solitude suggesting what she thinks is music.  Jacques Attali
Sentence to think about :  It's not quite true that music soothes the soul. I even believe that harmony, a little in excess, leads the better man made ​​to a state of stupor and senility quite frisky.  Alphonse Allais
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The Saxophone Quartet

The Saxophone Quartet

A quartet of saxophones. From right to left: baritone, tenor, soprano, alto

The saxophone quartet is a formation of chamber music composed for a soprano saxophone, an alto, a tenor and a baritone. It also means by this name musical forms dedicated to this type of training, often in classical music built on the model of the string quartet. Because of the versatility of the musicians who composed, there are many variants of this training. The words "American" for two violas, a tenor and a baritone is the most common, but there are quartets of saxophones soprano, alto or tenor saxophone, including instruments and even rarer as sopranino saxophone or tubax.

Among the many existing sets of saxophone, the quartet is that the directory has the richest in quantity (more than a thousand works identified in 1994 by Jean-Marie Londeix in his book 150 Years of Music for Saxophone) and quality, and number of existing training is awesome. Without attempting to parallel with the wonderful string quartet repertoire, one can even consider it for this type of training that the most interesting composers have found inspiration in the fairest and most profound, and there are now number of pieces written for leading saxophone quartet, while the repertoire of sonatas for the instrument is unfortunately very limited qualitatively so far.

The birth of the formation

Shortly after the invention of the saxophone family (patent 1846), a friend and fellow of Adolphe Sax , Jean-Baptiste Singelée insisted to the inventor to develop formulas that chamber music around her instruments. Being himself a violinist, he offered this formula certainly Sax since he wrote his "First Saxophone Quartet" (well named) in 1858. The inventor was teaching four saxophones in his class from the Paris Conservatoire. And every student was specialized, contributing to the soprano saxophone, baritone who ... Contrary to what might suggest the subsequent hegemony of the viola in teaching classical (and tenor among the musicians of jazz ).

Adolphe Sax was then improvised music publisher and concert promoter. So he published a number of works for various groups of saxophones, but mostly for string quartet, in parallel to works written for the contest of the conservatory. Alas, few illustrious names in this production, but mostly military colleagues in the College attached to the academy, often themselves of talented instrumentalists. Besides Singelée, who also wrote "Grand quartet concerto" found in its catalog names of horn player Jean-Baptiste Victor Mohr, clarinetist, saxophonist and band leader Jerome Savari, pianist and music theory Emile Jonas, heads of music Jules Adolphe Cressonois and Valentine Sellenick. Sax's competitors also tried to occupy a market seemingly bearer publishing saxophonist Louis Mayeur and others.

However, after the closure of the class of Adolphe Sax in the Conservatory, and probably lack of properly trained musicians, the quartet repertoire (among others) until it disappears almost wilts. Among the few works that have emerged at the turn of the twentieth century include those of Raymond Moulaert Belgian or English Caryl Florio.

Le Quatuor Marcel Mule

We are indebted to Marcel Mule renewed interest during the 1930s. The soloist of the Republican Guard and unanimously recognized musician in classical music circles, and three of his colleagues panel initially form the Saxophone Quartet of the Republican Guard in 1928, later in 1936, the Saxophone Quartet of Paris, then Marcel Mule Quartet. Georges Chauvet, Hippolyte Poimbœuf, Rene Chaligne Paul Romby, Fernand Lhomme, G. Charron, Andre Bauchy Marcel Josse, Georges Gourdet and Guy Lacour (and even Daniel Deffayet on some records) will be part of the successive formations. The whole gives many concerts in Europe, while recording a series of disks that are part of the history of the instrument. Many composers write for them, including: Jean Absil, Adolphe Borchard, Amedee Borsari, Eugene Bozza, Charles Brown, Roger Calmel Robert Clérisse Alfred Desenclos Dupérier Jean, Julien Falk, Jean Francaix, Alexander Glazunov, Stan Golestan, Andre Jorrand, Eleuthere LOVREGLIO Roger Manas, Marcelle Manziarly, Georges Migot, Claude Pascal, Gabriel Pierne, Paul Pierne, Robert Planel, Jean Rivier, Jeanine Rueff, Florent Schmitt, Jules Semler-Collery, Peter Vellone.

These include among his immediate followers of Mule, who formed his retinue to similar formations: Daniel Deffayet Quartet, Ensemble Saxophone French Jean-Marie Londeix, quartets Nouali Michel (Republican Guard), Jacques Desloges , Jean le Dieu, Alain Liger (4 of Paris) ...

The Rascher Quartet

For its part, the alter ego of Mule, Sigurd Rascher also formed in 1969 with his daughter Karina and Bruce Weinberger quartet who also knew a great success in North America. Among the composers used: Erland von Koch, Gerhard Fritz, Werner Wolf Glaser, John David Lamb, Zdenek Lukas, Walter S. Hartley, Emil Hlobil, Rene Borel, Robert Starer, Samuel Adler. The quartet continues today and contributes seriously to the expansion of the repertoire since it was commissioned major pieces by composers such as Iannis Xenakis, Franco Donatoni Dufourt Hughes, Ivan Fedele, Luciano Berio, Philip Glass, Sofia Gubaidulina, Cristobal Halffter, Roman Haubenstock-Ramati, Enrique Raxach Erich Urbanner, Charles Wuorinen ...

Contemporary repertoire

The most classical saxophonists today, inspired by the success of the quartet Mule and the interest of some scores when available, were themselves formed a quartet which includes the original parts and develops its own directory. Some parts are of great interest, and there is an increase of quality repertoire, parallel to the quantitative explosion. It is indeed often the formula for saxophone quartet as the most important composers of our time dedicating their work more relevant. Among the most notable include: Iannis Xenakis, Franco Donatoni, Ivan Fedele, Henri Pusher, John Cage, Salvatore Sciarrino, George Aperghis Erkki-Sven Tüür, Terry Riley, Hugh Dufourt Ichiro Nodaïra, Olga Neuwirth, ... portray a multifaceted instrument capable of feeding all the influences, first serve with all styles of music.

(Source: - copyright authors - article under GFDL)

Creation date : 31/03/2009 09:54
Category : Files - Orchestres / Formations-Chamber music
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