In solfeggio , if the length of time - defined by regular beats - is most often constant, the duration of notes and silences is not necessarily. The notation must be able to express, not only of equal duration in time, but also specific terms which are higher or lower. To represent the musical terms, two types of symbols exist, one to represent the notes played and sung - the figures of note - the other to represent certain moments of silence between notes - the figures of silence.
Scoring proportional figures of notes dates roughly from the XIIth century. Until the XIth century, musical notation includes only the heights - so very rough way - by a system called accents neum . The neumes do not take into account the pace: indeed, it is assumed to arise from the pace of free text sung. During the second half of the XIth century, neumes evolve to indicate different periods of their form from now on, the rhythmic values are determined more rigorously. During the XIIth, XIIIth and XIVth centuries, we use the square notation. The first type of proportional notation consists of black figures in the shape of squares or lozenges, and drawn with a quill pen - it will be permanently associated with the notation of plainsong. In the XVth century, we use the notation white: the notes are always square, but next to the black faces, white faces appear. It was not until the XVIth century, thanks to advances in printing music that gradually spreads the current appraisal system, known as "grading round".
Each figure represents a figure of note for the same period of silence:
The figures of note are in the form of an oval - called "head notes" - the position on the staff indicates the height of the note - cf. Disposition of notes on the staff. The note head is 'white' as regards the white and all values are superior - round, square, mostly - and "black" in regard to black and all values which are below - note, sixteenth note, etc.. The white and all values that are lower also possess a pole (or tail). Finally, the eighth and all the values that are inferior, are equipped with one or more hooks.
It should not be fooled by the terminology of the various figures which can easily mislead. In the field of figures of silence, the words half, quarter, etc.., Refer to the value of the figure in question: thus the half note is worth half a break, is the sixteenth rest although a quarter of a sigh, etc.. On the contrary, in Figures Notes, double, triple, etc.. Does not refer to the value of the figure in question (the sixteenth note, for example, worth half a quaver, and not twice, despite its name! The demisemiquaver not ternary but the level above the sixteenth, and is therefore half of a sixteenth note), but its description: the eighth word in fact must be understood as an abbreviation of the hook. Thus the eighth note is the figure with a simple hook, the sixteenth note is the figure with a double hook, etc..
The time slicing of a musical sequence can take two forms, depending on the type of notes issued by voice or instrument.
In the previous table, each figure is in length, half the previous figure, and double the figure below. For example, the eighth note is half black, a quarter of the white, etc.. but also double the sixteenth, four times the demisemiquaver, etc.. From this principle, we can deduce the following two tables:
The figures are attached to any absolute time. This is the unit of time, set at the beginning of each piece, which will help determine - for this piece only - the value of different figures, below or above this unit of time.
The duration of the various figures may be extended in various ways:
Neume is called (from the Greek νεύμα neuma, sign, or alteration of Greek πνεύμα pneuma, breath) signs of musical notation that were used from eighth century and throughout the Middle Ages to the widespread brought modern five lines. The notation on the square neumatic increased to four lines still used in modern editions of plainchant, that is to say essentially the Gregorian chant.
The neume transcribed melodic and rhythmic formula applied to a syllable (a single syllable may receive several neumes in melismatic singing). Contrary to the modern approach, the basic element for Gregorian chant (whether for its analysis or its interpretation) is not the musical note, but the neum.
In western music, solfeggio (or music theory) is the study of elements to read, write, play or sing a score. The ultimate goal of reading music is to hear a musical work, its orchestration and its interpretation, no other medium that its interior hearing.
A ternary music (Jazz, Swing, New Orleans Boogie triple) is composed of ternary time. A triple is a long time divided into three equal parts. In a ternary music, we usually play two notes by time, the first note is two-thirds of time and the second note takes third time. This imbalance of time between the notes of the same time gives a peculiar sensation, the sensation of bouncing.
In almost every boogie time is divided into two grades in the report 2/3-1/3 as mentioned above which gives a feeling of bouncing tonic.
In swing is almost a time of 2 is broken down in the 2/3-1/3 ratio which gives a feeling of bouncing nonchalant.
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