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Sentence to think about :  In the busy world of show business, it is not necessary to be a good musician to be familiar with the music.  Pierre Dac
Sentence to think about :  I am not a musician, but I love music passionately, and if air touches me, it amuses me, I listen with delight, I will not consider whether the music is French or Italian, I think Just as there is only one.  Carlo Goldoni
Sentence to think about :  That you become a teacher, scholar, or musician, have respect for the "sense", but do not imagine it is taught.  Hermann Hesse
Sentence to think about :  To make a bad musician, it takes at least five years of study. As for making a bad actor, it only takes ten minutes.  Coluche
Sentence to think about :  The musician is someone who can be relied on to provide reassurance to the neighbor, but it is also a reminder of what human excellence.  Yehudi Menuhin
Sentence to think about :  In the artistic hierarchy, the birds are the greatest musicians that exist on our planet.  Olivier Messiaen
Sentence to think about :  The music is the soul in harmony with all that exists.  Oscar Wilde
Sentence to think about :  The vase gives form to the emptiness, and music to silence.  Georges Braque
Sentence to think about :  What good attendance Plato, when a saxophone can also do us a glimpse of another world ?  Emil Michel Cioran
Sentence to think about :  Without music, life would be a mistake.  Friedrich Nietzsche
Sentence to think about :  We do not sell music. We share it.  Leonard Bernstein
Sentence to think about :  The more one knows about music, the less one is able to say something worthwhile.  Patrick Süskind
Sentence to think about :  The opera is opera, the symphony is the symphony, and I do not think it is nice to dance with the orchestra.  Giuseppe Verdi
Sentence to think about :  Mass of love - it seems that music is that for women.  Edmond et Jules de Goncourt
Sentence to think about :  There is no music more enjoyable than the variations of tunes.  Joseph Joubert
Sentence to think about :  Music is a higher revelation than all wisdom and philosophy.  Ludwig van Beethoven
Sentence to think about :  The real music is silence, and all notes are framed by silence.  Miles Davis
Sentence to think about :  The music, the most beautiful religion in the world where we are not threatened or promised.  Minou Drouet
Sentence to think about :  Jazz is what allows us to escape from everyday life.  Stéphane Grappelli
Sentence to think about :  The music deserves a second language compulsory in all schools in the world.  Paul Carvel
Sentence to think about :  Music gives a soul to our hearts and wings to thought.  Platon
Sentence to think about :  The beauty of music - like light - is that of speed, mobility, elusive.  Jean-Michel Jarre
Sentence to think about :  You do not need a brain to listen to music.  Luciano Pavarotti
Sentence to think about :  Music should humbly seek to please, the extreme complication is contrary to art.  Claude Debussy
Sentence to think about :  People who do not stand a chance to change the music world are those who do not like music.  Ben Harper
Sentence to think about :  The music drives the hatred in those who are without love. It gives peace to those who are restless, she comforts those who mourn.  Pablo Casals
Sentence to think about :  Our era is no longer music. She hides in the noise of men in their solitude suggesting what she thinks is music.  Jacques Attali
Sentence to think about :  It's not quite true that music soothes the soul. I even believe that harmony, a little in excess, leads the better man made ​​to a state of stupor and senility quite frisky.  Alphonse Allais
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Definition of music

(Source Encyclopedia AGORA)

Cairo Museum. Photo © Otto Kohler, reproduced with permission.
"Socrates, why do you play the lyre before dying?" - "To play the lyre before dying. "(Anonymous)

We can attempt to define music by speculation about its origin. The first sounds they have been issued for convenience of communication or self-enchanted? To imitate the song of birds or beasts growl? To soothe a feverish child sleep or pain? Orpheus , the mythical inventor of the lyre, charmed animals, plants and even stones. The first dance she is born of the pulse produced by the first pace ? Or the cadences of the dancer they have triggered the desire to accompany them by clapping of hands or whistle voice? Whatever the position taken, it can only be a conjecture among others. Here is one of Alain: "When hunting, it is necessary that hunters warned one another from afar, they probably started screaming by rounding their hands around their mouths and then they made a megaphone and bark metal, and they roared in there by keeping the voice of ordinary treble and bass, joined a rhythm. Then the physical set as filtered and then cries, for a pipe does not also strengthens all sounds, but only those who are called harmonics , and as those get along better than others was called good criers and masters in the art of screaming people who pushed these sounds then it is thus that the voice became gradually trumpet, horn, trumpet, along with the art became the art of screaming sing all our music is based on notes given by a bugle or hunting horn. It's in our surroundings, in nature it must seek the origin of institutions, not in old papers ".

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"Life without music is a mistake, a grueling task, an exile. "
Friedrich Nietzsche, letter to Peter Gast, 15 January 1888.

* * *

"The time" is "music, and it gives us when we run or we hear, is the only free time that we be given before death. "

* * *


Music or the omnipresence omnipresence of music?

Victor Hugo said: "Music is noise that thinks." He joined the inexhaustible and definition of Leibniz : "Music is a mathematics of the soul that account without knowing she has. This definition of Leibniz is it worth our time? Let us begin with a phenomenon so encysted in our time that we do not perceive it as something recent: it is the invasion, the infiltration of all our social and personal life through music, in the influence of technological discoveries allowing the recording and dissemination of sound permanent. An American philosopher, Allan Bloom , describes this phenomenon convincingly: "We are, he writes, in an era of music and moods that accompany it. To find the equivalent of this explosion of musical enthusiasm, we must go back at least a century back and discuss Germany and the atmosphere surrounding the operas of Wagner . The Wagnerian Wagner lived. Today also, we can say that a huge part of our young people between ten and twenty live for music, it is their passion, nothing else like it and the enthusiasm they can take anything seriously that is alien to the music. "
We are in an era of music. We do indeed live in an era where it invades and permeates everything. Anthropologists will argue that it also permeated the entire life of our ancestors. Indeed, in Civilization Egyptian, Hebrew, Greek and Roman times - has been the cradle of western music - various musical forms presided at great rites of daily life. In a way that anthropologists have grouped these musical events around religion, war and great moments of life in society. Among the Egyptians and Romans in particular, there was music in the temples, during banquets and celebrations and military parades. What the current phenomenon is new? With that in an ever more important in our lives, we pick our most sounds, they are imposed on us, whereas before the advent of industrialization in the sound, the use made music was limited and ritualized.
First, it required a long apprenticeship was necessary because, for lack of proper musical notation, to memorize to pass it, and secondly, he had to hear it or understanding it - which n does not preclude, on the contrary, the ability to improvise - or they could buy music, or move to places ad-hoc. Allan Bloom has shown that music has the ability to give "a rationale and an undeniable pleasure in rewarding activities that accompanies it: the soldier who hears a military band chanting and marching, is captivated reassured the prayer of the believer is exalted by the sound of the organ in the church, and the lover is transported and feels soothed his conscience by the romantic guitar "(2).
But how to justify the chant ininterrompable uninterrupted broadcast in all public places, where all styles of music succeed in anarchy? Their repetition inevitably leads to the differentiation


* * *

Music. Conference Dandrel Louis (University of All Knowledge, December 22, 2000), "Making a state of music today requires an inventory abundant and diverse. We can try to see or hear more clear by observing the changes of listening situations, techniques for processing and dissemination of sound, or the evolution of architecture. The extreme diversity of the music seems to coincide with the splitting and mixing areas where it taking shape and spreading. Some anthropologists and historians have highlighted the relationship between developments of traditional music and learned their acoustic environment. The production and consumption of music seems to date doubly linked to their environment they help shape but they are closely dependent. " You can listen to this lecture in Real Audio (
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Muzak, the foreman Music

The distribution of sound in public places falls within the most important companies named Muzak, based in New York in 1934. The company in its advertising is as a technique for contemporary administrative "and therefore not as a form of art or entertainment." This music is essentially intended to increase the production of workers in offices, public places, and as such, uses the known methods of packaging. "The product is intended for offices and factories of this sequence of songs in fifteen minutes ... each sequence moving from a slow to a fast pace. The intensity and tempo of the sequences themselves as up and down depending upon the course of a day of work, corresponding to the ups and downs of the mood of employees, or other psychological or environmental factors predetermined by the department human genius in the offices of Muzak New York (1). The results are they at the height of human genius? Surveys have shown that the use of Muzak increases productivity "especially among those whose educational level is low."
Muzak is not content to play this role in the psychosocial world of work, it is also found in the medical world where he is "used as an aid to anesthesia in the operating rooms in some hospitals. The sounds of what made the music they wake up?

This music is distinguished by its sanitized orchestration fixed and flat. It serves, among others, 22 of the 25 largest U.S. industries, and the music she makes is carefully developed and distributed in 18 countries in over 500 cities worldwide.

"The Canadian composer and writer R.Murray Schafer questioned the validity of the claim of Muzak to "mask" sounds less attractive as those of machinery factories or the hum of supermarkets. He considers the growing ubiquity of the music he ironically calls "Moo-zak" as an invasion of privacy and denial of freedom of choice. He also sees the germ of Muzak in a general atrophy of aesthetic sensibility by the inevitable exposure to some semblance of music that could make the unsuspecting subjects less receptive to listening experiences conscious not only of the true and the music that entertains, but also the natural environment.


* * *


Nietzsche's critique of modernity in music

"In music, we lack an aesthetic that would refer to impose rules on them and musicians create a consciousness we lack, and this is a consequence of a genuine struggle for the" principle "- because , as musicians, we mock the whims qu'Herbart has arisen on this area, as well as those of Schopenhauer . In fact, it follows that a major difficulty: we are no longer able to motivate the notions of "model", "MA", "perfection" - we grope blindly, with the instinct of an old love and a old admiration in the field of values, we are almost inclined to believe that "what we like is" ... This arouses my suspicion everywhere designate to hear Beethoven , innocently, as a " classic "I argue with rigor as in other arts, is meant by classical type opposite to that which is Beethoven. But when I see this decomposition in Wagner style that stands out, what is called his dramatic style, displayed and revered as a "model", a "master" "progress", my impatience at its peak. The dramatic style in music, as understood by Wagner, is the renunciation of any kind of style, on the pretext that there is something that is a hundred times more important than music, that is say the drama. Wagner knows how to paint, he uses music, not for making music, it reinforces attitudes, he is a poet, and finally he called the "beautiful feelings", the "lofty ideas", like all artists theater. - With all this he has won the women in his favor, and those who want to cultivate their minds, but these people, what have they to do with music? All this has no consciousness for art, all of which do not suffer when all the virtues of essential commodities and art are trampled and narguées for secondary intentions (as ancilla drarnaturgica). Never mind all the enlargements of the means of expression, though, that should express the art itself has lost the rule to guide him. The pictorial splendor and power of sound, the symbolism of the resonance, rhythm, color in the harmony and dissonance, meaning evocative music, the sensuality in the music that Wagner has brought victory - all Wagner recognized in the music, he sought there, the shot has to expand. Victor Hugo has done something similar to the language already but now we wonder in France, though in the case of Victor Hugo, that was not at the expense of language ... where, through the strengthening of sensuality in language, reason, intellect, deep compliance with the laws of language have not been lowered? In France, the poets have become fine artists, musicians in Germany comedians and scribblers are not this evidence of decadence? "


If far back in civilization, it is impossible to pinpoint a time when the music began. Undoubtedly, it has always been about music around the world.

Philosophers and writers to music

Historically, there have been philosophers and writers interested in music. Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, Quintilian, With My T'sien in the past, and closer to us Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, many others, regarded the music as one of the most profound speculations of the human mind. The poets have always sung Euterpe, and Paul Valery, nowadays, is not averse to flirting with the lady. But poets exalt and magnify all things, while philosophers and writers have sometimes hard hand. We know how fruitful were the ideas of Schopenhauer on music and everything that Wagner is the philosopher of the will. We also know that Nietzsche did not broach the music without passion, as revealed books as Human, All Too Human and The Gay Science, and others like Nietzsche against Wagner and The Wagner Case, destroying a god worshiped terribly. With Nietzsche and Schopenhauer, it is the presence of very sophisticated philosophers things music. The author of Zarathustra is Nietzsche wrote many works for piano and melodies that are being published. Despite the success of his comic opera Le Devin du village, we do not consider Jean-Jacques Rousseau as a musician by profession. However, items that Jean-Jacques has written for the Encyclopedia of Diderot are among the most important work of musicology of (...)


Creation date : 12/03/2009 18:08
Last update : 16/03/2009 20:37
Category : Files - Dossiers musique-Definitions
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Allan Bloom

Allan Bloom (Indianapolis September 14, 1930 - Chicago October 7, 1992).

American philosopher. A student of Leo Strauss at the University of Chicago.
Known primarily for having been propelled into the media by his international bestselling pamphlet, 1987 The Closing of the American Mind (translated into French by L'Âme désarmée), in which Bloom attacks the model of liberal education after the Second World War, and the overall influence of mass culture on their minds.
Bloom is known for his teaching and his translations of Platon and Rousseau.

Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer, born 16 or 17 December 1770 in Bonn (at the time of the Holy Roman Empire and died March 26, 1827 in Vienna (Austria).


The cadences

In western music, and more specifically, in tonal music, the word cadence covers several concepts.
The term comes from Italian cadenza - fall - itself derived from the verb cadere - to fall.

In classical music, a cadence is originally a form of melodic and harmonic whose function is to enter a piece, or at least, a musical phrase.

There are mainly six types of cadences. The perfect cadence, which is most used, must be considered the archetype of the pace : others indeed are but avatars, in other words, cadences perfect with something less. We distinguish :
  • the perfect cadence is a cadence consisting of a sequence of steps V and I, both in their ground state (that is to say that the basic agreement is the bottom in both cases) and the highlights.
  • the Italian cadence - or cadence completed - is a cadence consisting of a sequence of steps IV, V and I.
  • the imperfect cadence is a cadence consisting of a sequence of steps V and I, one of the two agreements at least, is to overthrow the state - most often, the degree that I was a sixth chord.
  • the deceptive cadence - or cadence avoided, or even deceptive cadence - a cadence is a sequence consisting of between the fifth degree and a degree other than the first, which is expected - a reference to the perfect cadence or cadence imperfect .
  • the half-cadence - or cadence to the dominant - is a cadence consisting of a sequence producing the fifth degree - to the ground state, most often.
  • the cadence plagal is a cadence, usually consisting of a sequence of steps IV and I.

The chant

In the original sense, the art of pronouncing harmoniously, that is to say, reciting a phrase or verse of discourse of tragedy.
In music, the art of getting on the high words of prose or poetry, a phrase of music or a phrase instead of recitative.

Classical period

The Music "Classic" includes music written by agreement between the death of Johann Sebastian Bach is 1750 and the beginning of the Romantic period or the 1820s. By extension, called  "classical music" all european art music, music from the Renaissance to contemporary music. It is therefore necessary to separate the classical music, composers whose headlights are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Christoph Willibald Gluck, and classical music opposed to popular music in the West or elsewhere (referred to "Indian classical music," for example).

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 at Röcken, Saxony - August 25, 1900 in Weimar, Germany) is a German philosopher and philologist.

Nietzsche's work relates primarily to the metaphysical. His writings include criticism of religion, morality, contemporary culture, art and philosophy. His distinctive style has its roots in the aphorisms and poetry. Nietzsche's influence is substantial in philosophy and beyond, notably in existentialism and postmodernism.


Harmonics of a sound

A sound wave is characterized physically by its frequency of vibration and it is measured in Hertz (number of vibrations per second). For example, the "A3" has a frequency of 440 Hz higher the frequency, the higher the sound is high. At heights (and thus frequencies) identical sounds emitted by two different instruments (eg violin and flute) do not resonate in the same way. Each is characterized by its so-called stamp that identifies it, that no translation of his nature is really simple: it follows from the combination of its primary or basic, which sets the frequency perceived by the ear and a large number of harmonics whose relative weights determine precisely its timbre.

The harmony

In its broadest sense, the word harmony means traditionally one of the four elements of music - the others being the rhythm, the melody and timbre.
Harmony is the deliberate use of frequencies simultaneously, with a view to provide relief and depth to the song or instrumental performance : she represents the aspect vertical music, while the melody is the aspect horizontal.


Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (Leipzig, July 1, 1646 - Hanover, 14 November 1716) was a philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian and German lawyer who wrote in Latin, French and German.


The musicology

Musicology is a scientific discipline that studies the phenomena connected with music in their evolution (history of musical ideas and theories) and their relationship with humans and society, the particular areas covered by ethnomusicology and sociology of music.
Its scientific nature makes her stand out from the musicography.
As interrogated about music, it is required to distinguish the history of music of music creation. As a science, it convenes several disciplines (history, linguistics, psychology, social sciences and physical sciences).
These questions reflect many of the problems that casts a "scientific" about music. These issues can be grouped into two categories.
The first category includes all the lessons that we can now draw from history and which led to current concerns. All confluence of style that mark the history of music and all the influences that built the works from all periods reflected a certain amount of achievement in today's music, including music technology.
A second category is conceptual, and specifically sets out to compare the association of the musical past and the present, and analyze any changes in the music according to this view.


Orpheus is a legendary hero of Greek mythology, son of the king of Thrace Œagre and the muse Calliope.

He knew from the tones of his lyre, charmed wild animals and managed to move inanimate objects. It was filled with many gifts by Apollo, and it is said that he added two strings to the traditional seven-stringed lyre given him by the god, in tribute to the nine Muses, patrons of the arts and letters, which his mother belonged.

The rythm

The rhythm is in music, which determines the duration of notes to each other. The rhythm, melody, tempo and nuance are the four main facts to characterize a given musical phrase.


Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher, born February 22, 1788 in Danzig in Prussia, died September 21, 1860 in Frankfurt / Main.


Richard Wagner

Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813, Leipzig - 13 February 1883, Venice) was a German composer.

Engineering a rare outsized universality Wagner owes its importance in the history of Western music in his operas, particularly Der Ring des Nibelungen, a festival stage in a prologue and three days of which he himself wrote the poems and the design deliberately bumped habits of the time to go, in his own words, to a 'total art' show full continuous melody and use of leitmotif.


The western music

Western music is music, popular or learned, practiced in European countries and American or European influence, and / or North American, and / or South American, from Charlemagne to today. Its main features are:

  • its age (about a thousand years),
  • sa dimension polyphonique , dimension polyphonic
  • its rating system and the importance accorded to it as opposed to the oral music,
  • Finally, the prominence that Western music has come to occupy in the global scale, often to the detriment of other musical genres.