In western music, a choir means a vocal ensemble, whose members, known singers, singing together the various musical parts for this type of formation under the direction of a conductor.
- The word "choir" is generally synonymous with "chorus". The two words have different connotations, however.
The word "chorus" usually refers to a unit composed of professional singers and paid, recruited by an institution or an official body - "the chorus of such theater," the chorus of this region, "the chorus of an opera" etc...
The word "choir" in contrast, means more likely a group of amateurs, mostly volunteers, voluntarily united around a love of choral singing - "the choir college," the choir of a church ", "the village choir", etc...
Intermediately, the term "ensemble" means a smaller group and / or with a greater musical requirement, even if it is amateur.
- By age and sex of singers, we can distinguish :
- the children's choir or children's chorus ;
- the choir of men, or men's chorus, or male chorus ;
- the choir of women, or women's chorus or female chorus ;
the mixed choir - men and women - or mixed chorus.
- Members of a choir can be divided into several groups, called panels or voices. These groups are intended to interpret many different musical parts.
- For example, a mixed choir consists mostly four desks, two desks women - soprano and alto - and two male desks - tenor and bass (SATB choir).
- Choirs may also be distinguished by the choice of repertoire, with a wide variety of situations created by musical choices or more sociological in nature, and for example :
- sacred music and/or secular music ;
military music, folk, revolutionary ;
The vocal sound production, or phonation, is obtained by sending air through both vocal cords vibrate, located in the larynx, followed by amplification and resonance thanks to the various organs resonators, as the pharynx, oral cavity or the nasal cavity.
The human voice is able of producing a wide variety of frequencies.
By changing the tension, especially the thickness of the vocal cords, which can change their vibrational frequency, which has the effect of varying the pitch of notes issued by voice. All these changes are the result of neuro-cerebral activities.
There are different types of voices. They differentiate commonly voices of women and children and male voices, female voices and childish is more acute than the male voices (with some exceptions). In this classification, one can even say that there are deep voices and high voices of women and children, as there are deep voices and high voices of men. This leads to the conclusion that there are four types of voice, named as follows in musical terms :
- The sopranos, or the shrill voices of women and children
- The altos, and bass voices of women and children
- The tenors, or the shrill voices of men
- The basses, which as the name implies correspond to deep voices of men.
This classification is based on the tone, thickness, and the tessitura of the voice; term used to describe a musical sound level set, in which the voice can be heard as easily, maintaining a consistency of tone.
These records, also known range, are:
It should be noted that women tessituras below are only valid for lyric singers since the latter distorts (sing in head voice) over their entire range, while the variety of singers "poitrinent " and then descend lower and rise less high, but whether they affect they rise as high as the voice type that corresponds to them in the following list.
- Soprano : the soprano range covers the most common middle C to high-C (C3 - C5), the soprano types are classified as follows :
- coloratura soprani or soprani acute :
- Coloratura soprano light or light soprano : voice very agile, brilliant, shrill and high purity, but not very powerful, often with serious toneless, ranging from low D to high-G or high B flat (D3 - G/Bflat5). Note that the light coloratura soprano arias are very often accompanied by a flute, one imitating the other.
- Lyric coloratura soprano : nimble voice as pure and bright as the light soprano, but warm and fuller and more homogeneous register, and extending from middle C to high-F (C3 - F5).
- Dramatic coloratura soprano : nimble voice, warm and rich, easy as serious as the shrill, incessantly that can pass from one to another without any difficulty, with a power belongs to lirico-spinto or dramatic soprano, ranging from high-B to high-F (B2 - F5).
- Lyric soprani :
- Light lyric soprano : nimble voice (but not as much as coloratura soprano), very clear, bright and warm, with limited scope, is distinguished by a very pure vocal line, stretching from middle C to the high E flat (C3 -Eb5).
- Lyric Soprano: it is by far the most common type female is a full voice, pure and warm, not shrill, nor dramatic, ranging from middle C to high-C (C3 - C5).
- Great lyric soprano : voice possessing the characteristics of lyric soprano, but the patch is larger, allowing it to pass through orchestras large and whose range extends from middle C to high-C (C3 - C5).
- Lirico-spinto soprano : warm voice, able of dramatic outbursts and strong colors, ranging from middle C to high-C (C3 - C5).
- Soprani dramatiques:
- Dramatic soprano or wagnerian : vocals passing easily through the more expanded bands, color and hot metal at a time, ranging from low-B to high-C (B2 - C5).
- Falcon soprano : voice with the same characteristics as the previous type, but with a serious and acute mezzo bit easier, it runs from low-G to top-B (G2 - B4).
It should be noted that the lyrical voice (whether of the sopranos or baritones) are very likely to legato.
- coloratura soprani or soprani acute :
- Mezzo-soprano, (also called Mezzo) :
- Coloratura mezzo-soprano : pure voice, warm, round, and very agile, with almost a sharp soprano, but could not stay there as long as the latter, the risk of getting hurt, its range extends from the low-A to top-B (A2 - B4).
- Light mezzo-soprano or Dugazon (from name's Misses Dugazon, famous interpreter of the late XVIIIth century) : pure voice, warm, round, and agile, ranging from the low-A to the top-A (A2 - A4) .
- Lyric mezzo-soprano : voice powerful medium with warm colors in the low , often very extensive on one side to the other register. Lighter and agile than the dramatic, the lyric mezzo voice retains a texture rich, immersive and dark without cumbersome.
- Dramatic mezzo-soprano or Galli-Marié (from name's another famous French singer of the late XIXth century, Celestine Galli-Marié) : voice, warm, enveloping, powerful, serious and dark in the midrange, bright in acute, it approach the dramatic contralto, besides this type has become very rare, it is often replaced by a mezzo-soprano dramatic. The range of dramatic mezzo-soprano runs from low-G to high-A (G2 -A4).
- Coloratura contralto : voice very agile, large, dark tone, warm, round, bright and sharp, its range extends from low-F to high-G (F2 - G4). This type of voice is as rare as dramatic contralto, it is mostly replaced by a coloratura mezzo-soprano.
- Dramatic contralto : full voice and dark, warm tone, round and naturally rich in natural deep and low tenor, without magnification artificial. Its range extends from low-C to high-G (C2 - G4). The term contralto voice applies to women but may designate, in music baroque, a male voice. It then specifies male alto.
- High-cons : very agile voice, high purity, bright, easy to treble, but the limited size breasts in the low and midrange, treble in distorting and extending the low-C the high-F (C2 - F4).
- Light Tenor : same features as the previous type, but not singing voice in falsetto, stretching from low-C to high-C (C2 - C4).
- Light lyric tenor : the same characteristics as the previous type, except the power that is stronger, but more limited than that of the lyric tenor ranges from low-C to high-C (C2 - C4).
- Lyric tenor : full voice, warm, pure, rich and full, extending from low-C to high-C (C2 - C4).
- Lirico-spinto tenor : same features as the previous type, but stamp wider range extending from low-C to high-C (C2 - C4).
- Dramatic tenor : same features as the previous type, but thick patch, which allows it to pass easily through orchestras very fleshed out.
- Heldentenor, heroic tenor, or wagnerian tenor : warm voice, extremely meaty, and powerful (over 120 dB at 1 m), low to dark-medium and in the high baritone and brilliant, but not easy, its range extends low-G or low-A to top-A (G/A - A3).
- Bass : E1 - D3 , baritones (Ab1 - F3) are the group most acute, the lower nobility have a voice very serious and extensive (C1 - E3).
We can therefore classify tessituras as follows :
- Voices of women and children :
- Men's voices :
Some exceptions can add to these classifications, as the voices of high-cons, male voice unusually acute. Some women have very serious voice, called woman tenor. There are more in Eastern Europe and they are widely used in choral music of Bulgaria.
Finally, some virtuoso voice can reach extremely high notes like light soprani or coloratura soprani, those for whom writing was the air of the Queen of the Night in The Magic Flute of Mozart, or even very low notes - these voices are so called noble bass or deep bass and are found occasionally in the Russians. Some male voices are exceptionally low.
It's the larynx that contains the vocal cords, which tighten or relax under the complex action of several muscles. To allow the singer to make sounds of different heights, the larynx tends more or less pronounced. When he ascends or descends into the trachea, it changes the dimension of the resonator and amends the patch, but not the pitch.
There are four ways to make vocal sounds, in relation to different modes of the larynx, known mechanisms (B. Roubeau) :
- The mechanism 0 said Fry or strowbass
- The mechanism 1 said chest voice, the larynx is fully lowered into the throat, the sounds are crazy. For example, the bass solo at the beginning of tuba mirum from Requiem by Mozart.
- The mechanism 2 said head voice, the larynx is mounted in the groove, the sounds are thin and light. Example air of Arithmetic in The Child and the Spells of Ravel's "four and four eighteen, eleven and eleven twenty-five ....
- The mechanism 3 said whistle voice.
- The mixed voice is not a mode of mechanism of the larynx, but a way of adapting resonators.
- The voice is a guttural voice through the vocal cords while creating a hoarse voice and sometimes up to reproduce a voice almost animal. Normally, if this product is no vocal cord damage is possible because no problem of loss of voice.
- When the work must be performed a cappella or accompanied by a small number of instruments together for the occasion, the musical director is normally provided by the choir.
- When the work must be performed with an orchestra, the musical direction of the assembly thus formed is usually performed by the conductor.
Among the famous choir or holds or has held an important role in vocal music include Patrick Marie Aubert, Norbert Balatsch, Frieder Bernius, Bouture Didier Philippe Caillard, Stephane Caillat, Michel Corboz, Marcel Couraud, Marcus Creed, Laurence Equilbey, Eric Ericson, John Eliot Gardiner, Yvonne Ruled, Jacques Grimbert, Philippe Herreweghe, Geoffrey Jordan, Patrick Marco, Arthur Oldham, Michel Piquemal, François Polgar, Toni Ramon, Karl Richter, Denis Rouger, John Rutter, Gerhard Schmidt Gaden, Robert Shaw, Joel Suhubiette Michel Tranchant Sofi Jeannin. Many of them are also conductors, even if they have long specialized in music with choir.
In western music, a chorister is a musician who, in a chorus or choir, performs together a musical part in a panel - unlike the solo singer, which, as its name suggests, carries only his part.
- According to the panel to which it belongs, the choir will be associated with a job traditional voice: soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto, tenor, baritone or bass.
- The musical knowledge base - mainly music theory and vocal technique - even if they are very popular in a choir, are not indispensable in the choral unprofessional. Thus, contrary to what happens in the field of instrumental music where technical knowledge is circumvented easily, anyone can easily fit just singing in a choir. Becoming a chorister is a way for fans without formal musical training, to participate in the execution of works, some of which may be large.
- For example, the soprano saxophone is above the alto saxophone (most known).
The development in power and length of voice led to the study of voice, that voice is now called typology. It describes several types of sopranos, most powerful (dramatic soprano), the most acute (light soprano).
In typolmogy voice, it uses the modern meanings: lyrical, lirico-spinto, dramatic, to describe the power of voice (gradually in order).
Be careful though, because if we talk of light soprano, it indicates both a low voice and a vocal range more acutely.
Placement of voice
Consistent with the classical beauty of the soprano voice has been built on an aesthetic homogeneity of the patch (no sensation of breaking from low to high), and developed his power of technology increasingly demanding (size of scenes). The specificity of the soprano is that it often works to his low tones not to use his chest voice, or as lightly as possible.
If the altos are frequently female singers, one may be dealing with male altos in the following two assumptions :
- In a children's choir, the alto section is naturally composed of male voices with the most serious.
- In several vocal ensembles, including interpreting the repertoire of baroque music, the alto section meets very common for men using the technique of falsetto - also known as: countertenors. The presence of men among the altos and sometimes brings a powerful extra brightness to the entire panel, as the men sing in the treble of their range, while women use their range rather serious.
Figuratively, and referring to tenor soloists in XIXth century, gained fame in the operatic field, the word "tenor" usually refers to a man known for his talent in that activity.
- Examples: "tenor of the Bar" to describe a successful lawyer, a "tenor of politics" to describe a famous politician, and so on.
When writing music becomes harmonic from the XIVth century, the term came to designate a male voice usually acute, responsible for the main melody - often punctuated by long values - as opposed to other voices, above and below - including figures rhythmic richer and more varied - whose function was to provide counterpoint to the tenor part. In conservatories and music schools, the duties ofharmony are still today prepared for a quartet consisting of soprano, alto, tenor and bass.
It goes without saying that the voices of young boys, castrati and countertenors are sharper than the tenor voice, but these are classified separately because their vocal technique is totally different.
The term "tenor" is used at the end of the XVIIIth century, succeeding the designations of "size" and "high-cons".
There are several categories of tenors whose differ of the characters they portrayed, and the valor of voice and rich tone, being the constant range, which extends most of the C2 to B3.
If until the middle of the XIXth century, the highs were issued in the "falsetto" (falsetto in Italian) or "head voice" in the baroque style, the "chest voice" - stronger but less extensive - is gradually imposed from the 1840s under the leadership of French tenor Gilbert Duprez. This development explains, for example, in Italian opera, bel canto works (Bellini, Rossini) generally have high tessituras but instrumentation minor roles while verists (Puccini) are less acute but more with orchestrations provided.
In western music, a baritone is a singer whose voice has an average range between the tenors and basses. The term - from Greek barytonos : whose voice has a low tone - is often used for solo voice, but can also be used for a voice in a desk.
Le baritone, voice of soloist
Panel member into a choir
In a chorus (or choir), the word bass means primarily a panel, whose ambitus is below that of the tenors. By extension, the term includes the members of this panel, and this, whatever their true typology voice.
Regarding the soloists, a bass is the type of male voice whose range is the lower.
- There are several categories which differ in the low nature of the characters they portrayed, and the valor of voice and rich tone, often remaining constant tessitura, which extends most of the E1 to E3.
In the case of a piece of music, the ambitus is the range of notes that will reach to restore a piece.
The ambitus must be carefully distinguished from the tessitura which means in turn notes that an interpreter can be achieved without special effort with his voice or instrument, an interpreter may have to exceed its tessitura of an extreme number of notes - in the acute or the grave - with which he is less comfortable to repay all the ambitus of a song.
More fundamentally, the tessitura or the registry are linked to the absolute pitch of notes, while the ambitus is an interval, a relative height between the worst and most acute. The ambitus as well if (a transposition near) a melody is singable or playable on a given instrument.
Hector Berlioz is a composer, a writer and a French critic, born December 11, 1803 at La Cote Saint Andre, Isere, died March 8, 1869 in Paris.
It is considered one of the greatest representatives of European Romanticism, although it should challenge the term "romantic" that meant nothing to him.
It is defined in fact as a classical composer. His music had the reputation of not respecting the laws of harmony, accusation which does not resist to a deepened reading of its scores.
It reveals, paradoxically, that Berlioz respects the historical foundations of harmony dating from the XVIth century (rules governing opposite and joint movements), but sometimes it frees additional rules appeared later and aesthetically questionable (rules modulation cadential among others).
The phenomenon of the castrati appears in the second half of the XVIth century in the west, grows mainly in Italy and disappears from the late XIXth and early XXth century. They say the best castrati could compete in power, technique and height with a small trumpet. The word also refers to the type of voices obtained by this operation.
A support for the partition
In the midst of the Middle Ages, when Western music was learned systematized the use of notation, the panel has appointed a cabinet for supporting a partition so as to permit reading.
The position of conductor
"The 'console can metaphorically describe the place of the conductor. Thus, the radio, the commentator called sometimes the conductor by the expression: "the band X, Y on the podium.
A group of musicians
In a musical, a desk is a group of musicians performing the same party as the tenors in a choir or second violins in a symphony orchestra, but he also referred to as a set of instruments belonging to the same family, wood an orchestra to brass band or a big band.
The term is applied mainly to male singers, in order to distinguish what type of voice transmission technology opposite, more traditional, using the chest voice - or register your chest - often regarded as culturally more natural.
The falsetto voice is not very powerful, but a pleasant tone. His vocal range (range), relatively short, approximates that of the female contralto.
Harmonics of a sound
In music, instrumentation indicates generally speaking the implement, the enrollment, nature and the sharing out of instruments in a group, notably those of the orchestra. Term also indicates the discipline studying these aspects.
Instrumentation classifies instruments in eight main groups :
- Brasses (trumpet, cornets, paper clip, horn, saxhorn, euphonium, tuba, etc..)
- Saxophones (sopranino, soprano, viola, tenor, baritone, bass, etc...)
- Wood (flute which runs across, piccolo, clarinet, oboe, cor anglais, bassoon, contrabassoon, etc..)
- Strings (violin, viola, violoncello, contrabass, etc)
- General percussions (battery, timpani, big case, tomtom, drums, tambourine, congas, bongos, "Cuica", etc...)
- Keyboards (piano, harpsichord, organ, etc...), the synthesizer, percussions-keyboards (celesta, vibraphone, glockenspiel, xylophone, marimba, gongs, bells, etc...)
- Miscellaneous (harp, guitar, bass guitar, accordion, etc...); the ancient instruments (viols, vièles, flutes with beak, galoubet, flute of Section, cone with buck, bagpipes, biniou, etc...)
- Choruses (feminine voice, voice of men, voice of children).
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgang Theophilus Mozart, better known by the name of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (born in Salzburg, a principality of the Holy Roman Empire, January 27, 1756 - died in Vienna Dec. 5, 1791) is generally considered one of the largest Composers of European classical music.
Although he died at thirty-five years, it leaves an important work (626 work are listed in the Catalog KV) which embraces all genres of his time.
According to the testimony of his contemporaries was the piano to the violin as a virtuoso.
The octave in music
The Popular Music
The term popular music was used as a more or less wide, it is also called pop music. Initially used for any non-classical music, its definition is evolving in the nineteenth century, excluding folk music, traditional music called instead today.
Joseph Maurice Ravel (Ciboure, Pyrenees-Atlantiques, March 7, 1875 - Paris, December 28, 1937) was a French composer of the modern era.
His work is the result of a persistent search for perfection and a legacy ranging from Rameau to the pioneers of jazz, reflects a unique style that, after participating at the beginning of the century Impressionist movement, turned to a more neoclassical stripped.
Recognized as a master of orchestration and a meticulous craftsman, a man of complex personality has never parted with a sensitivity and expressiveness that, according to Le Robert, made him recall his work in both " games the most subtle of intelligence "and" the outpourings of the most secret heart. "
Not very prolific (eighty-six original works, twenty-five works orchestrated or transcribed), producing music of Ravel is characterized by a diversity of genres and a significant proportion of works recognized as a major.
These include the symphonic ballet Daphnis et Chloe (1909-1912), Bolero (1928), two concertos for piano and orchestra (for the Left Hand, 1929-1931, in G major, 1930-31) and orchestration of Pictures at an Exhibition by Mussorgsky (1922) are those who have contributed most, for decades, internationally renowned musician.
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, rock developed a number of sub-genres. It was blended with folk music, (which gave the folk rock), with the blues (blues rock) and jazz (jazz-rock fusion).
In the 1970s, rock was influenced by soul, funk, and Latin music. Also during the 1970s, rock developed many sub-genres like soft rock, glam rock, heavy metal, hard rock, progressive rock, and punk rock.
Among the sub-genres of rock that emerged during the 1980s there is the new wave, hardcore punk and alternative rock.
During the 1990s, the new sub-genres include rock grunge and Britpop, indie rock, and nu metal.
A group of musicians specializing in rock is called a rock band. Most rock bands are composed of an electric guitarist, a lead singer, a bassist and a drummer, forming a quartet. Some groups omit one or more of these roles include a singer or playing an instrument, even as he sings, forming a trio or duo; others include additional musicians such as one or two rhythm guitarist or a keyboardist. Less commonly, groups also utilize stringed instruments like violins or cellos, wind instruments like a saxophone, brass or instruments such as trumpets or trombones.
More recently, the term rock was used as a generic term including forms like pop music, soul and even hip hop, with whom he is often opposed. [One] The Rock has become a "philosophy "with its cultural dominance, film comics through fashionable clothing.
Gioacchino Rossini (Gioachino or - in the civil Giovacchino Antonio Rossini), born in Pesaro, February 29, 1792 and died in Paris on November 13, 1868, is one of the greatest composers of the nineteenth century, both in importance and extent of his repertoire as for its quality.
Above all, his name is connected with the opera. Today's most popular works are The Barber of Seville (The Barber of Seville by Beaumarchais), and La Cenerentola (from Cinderella), Overture (The Thieving Magpie), L'italiana in Algeri (The Italian Girl in Algiers) and Guillaume Tell.
The year 1830 represents a break in the life of Rossini. He stopped writing operas but always composed, at its own rhythm, sacred music and instrumental music until his death in 1868.
In music, the tessitura of a voice or an instrument means all the notes a musician, singer or instrumentalist, is capable of transmitting easily from the serious to the acute. The tessitura and tone are used to classify certain instruments and voices by categories or families.
The word "tessitura" must be carefully distinguished from the word vocal tessitura, which designates the total tessitura (between extreme scores) of a musical part (of a voice or an instrument).
In western music, the word means a tone scale music belonging to the tonal system.
- Caught in a broad sense, the word "tone" can refer to the tonal system as a whole.
- The word can also take the direction of height, its fundamental to some instruments.
- The word tone can be used as a synonym for tone.
A tone is defined as the set of intervals, melodic and harmonic as well, between hierarchical levels of a given scale compared to its fundamental level, called tonic. A tone is characterized by both the tonic and its mode.
Each key is constructed from the diatonic scale.
The tone is also a means to locate a musical instrument in relation to C reference.
The flute, violin or piano are in C, that is to say that when the C is played, it really means to do. The B-flat trumpet sounded really flat so when playing a do. The horn (in F) is heard when playing an F do.
The tone is very important because it will allow transposition and transcription of partitions in C in tones of instruments with different pitches.
Some instruments and their tone:
- Ut: Piano, strings, flutes and piccolo, oboe, bassoon, C trumpet, trombone, tuba, bass tuba.
- D flat: the old piccolos.
- Re: Trumpet in D.
- Eb: alto saxophone and baritone, small bugle, horn in E flat, alto (small tuba), clarinet, bass tuba.
- F: Cor.
- Sol: Trumpet in G.
- The: Oboe d'amore, the trumpet.
- Bb: soprano saxophone, tenor tuba (euphonium and baritone), B-flat trumpet, flugelhorn, clarinet, bass tuba (bombardon).
The western music
Western music is music, popular or learned, practiced in European countries and American or European influence, and / or North American, and / or South American, from Charlemagne to today. Its main features are:
- its age (about a thousand years),
- sa dimension polyphonique , dimension polyphonic
- its rating system and the importance accorded to it as opposed to the oral music,
- Finally, the prominence that Western music has come to occupy in the global scale, often to the detriment of other musical genres.